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      The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor teneligliptin functions as antioxidant on human endothelial cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic high-glucose memory

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          Abstract

          Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are widely used in type 2 diabetes. Endothelium plays a crucial role maintaining vascular integrity and function. Chronic exposure to high glucose drives to endothelial dysfunction generating oxidative stress. Teneligliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with antioxidant properties. This study is aimed to verify a potential protective action of teneligliptin in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured under normal (5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L) during 21 days, or at high glucose during 14 days followed by 7 days at normal glucose, to reproduce the high-metabolic memory state. During this period, different concentrations of teneligliptin (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 µmol/L) or sitagliptin (0.5 µmol/L) were added to cells. Ribonucleic acid and protein expression were assessed for antioxidant response, proliferation, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Teneligliptin promotes the antioxidant response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, reducing ROS levels and inducing Nrf2-target genes messenger ribonucleic acid expression. Teneligliptin, but not sitagliptin, reduces the expression of the nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase regulatory subunit P22 −phox , however, both blunt the high glucose-induced increase of TXNIP. Teneligliptin improves proliferation rates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose, regulating the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors markers ( P53, P21 and P27), and reducing proapoptotic genes ( BAX and CASP3), while promotes BCL2 expression. Teneligliptin ameliorates high glucose-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress reducing the expression of several markers ( BIP, PERK, ATF4, CHOP, IRE1a and ATF6). Teneligliptin has antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative stress and apoptotic phenotype and it can overcome the metabolic memory effect, induced by chronic exposure to high glucose in human endothelial cells.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Oxidative stress and diabetic complications.

          Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications, both microvascular and cardiovascular. The metabolic abnormalities of diabetes cause mitochondrial superoxide overproduction in endothelial cells of both large and small vessels, as well as in the myocardium. This increased superoxide production causes the activation of 5 major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of complications: polyol pathway flux, increased formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end products), increased expression of the receptor for AGEs and its activating ligands, activation of protein kinase C isoforms, and overactivity of the hexosamine pathway. It also directly inactivates 2 critical antiatherosclerotic enzymes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and prostacyclin synthase. Through these pathways, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause defective angiogenesis in response to ischemia, activate a number of proinflammatory pathways, and cause long-lasting epigenetic changes that drive persistent expression of proinflammatory genes after glycemia is normalized ("hyperglycemic memory"). Atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes are caused in part by pathway-selective insulin resistance, which increases mitochondrial ROS production from free fatty acids and by inactivation of antiatherosclerosis enzymes by ROS. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase in transgenic diabetic mice prevents diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding the role of metabolite-generated ROS in the development of diabetic complications.
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            Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes.

            Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using cell culture and mouse models, we show that obesity causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This stress in turn leads to suppression of insulin receptor signaling through hyperactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and subsequent serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Mice deficient in X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), a transcription factor that modulates the ER stress response, develop insulin resistance. These findings demonstrate that ER stress is a central feature of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Pharmacologic manipulation of this pathway may offer novel opportunities for treating these common diseases.
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              Modulation of oxidative stress as an anticancer strategy.

              The regulation of oxidative stress is an important factor in both tumour development and responses to anticancer therapies. Many signalling pathways that are linked to tumorigenesis can also regulate the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through direct or indirect mechanisms. High ROS levels are generally detrimental to cells, and the redox status of cancer cells usually differs from that of normal cells. Because of metabolic and signalling aberrations, cancer cells exhibit elevated ROS levels. The observation that this is balanced by an increased antioxidant capacity suggests that high ROS levels may constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis. However, ROS can also promote tumour formation by inducing DNA mutations and pro-oncogenic signalling pathways. These contradictory effects have important implications for potential anticancer strategies that aim to modulate levels of ROS. In this Review, we address the controversial role of ROS in tumour development and in responses to anticancer therapies, and elaborate on the idea that targeting the antioxidant capacity of tumour cells can have a positive therapeutic impact.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Hospital Clínic, C/Rosselló, 149-153, 08036, Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1017 3210, GRID grid.7010.6, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, DISCLIMO, , Università Politecnica delle Marche, ; Ancona, Italy
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2152 7926, GRID grid.418083.6, Experimental Models in Clinical Pathology, , INRCA-IRCCS National Institute, ; Ancona, Italy
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1784 7240, GRID grid.420421.1, , IRCCS MultiMedica, ; Milan, Italy
                Contributors
                gpujadas@clinic.cat
                +34 93 227 54 00 , aceriell@clinic.cat
                Journal
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Springer US (New York )
                1355-008X
                1559-0100
                16 August 2016
                16 August 2016
                2017
                : 56
                : 3
                : 509-520
                27530507 5435779 1052 10.1007/s12020-016-1052-0
                © The Author(s) 2016

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative     Commons      Attribution       4.0      International      License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

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