16 August 2016
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are widely used in type 2 diabetes. Endothelium plays a crucial role maintaining vascular integrity and function. Chronic exposure to high glucose drives to endothelial dysfunction generating oxidative stress. Teneligliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with antioxidant properties. This study is aimed to verify a potential protective action of teneligliptin in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured under normal (5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L) during 21 days, or at high glucose during 14 days followed by 7 days at normal glucose, to reproduce the high-metabolic memory state. During this period, different concentrations of teneligliptin (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 µmol/L) or sitagliptin (0.5 µmol/L) were added to cells. Ribonucleic acid and protein expression were assessed for antioxidant response, proliferation, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Teneligliptin promotes the antioxidant response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, reducing ROS levels and inducing Nrf2-target genes messenger ribonucleic acid expression. Teneligliptin, but not sitagliptin, reduces the expression of the nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase regulatory subunit P22 −phox , however, both blunt the high glucose-induced increase of TXNIP. Teneligliptin improves proliferation rates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose, regulating the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors markers ( P53, P21 and P27), and reducing proapoptotic genes ( BAX and CASP3), while promotes BCL2 expression. Teneligliptin ameliorates high glucose-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress reducing the expression of several markers ( BIP, PERK, ATF4, CHOP, IRE1a and ATF6). Teneligliptin has antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative stress and apoptotic phenotype and it can overcome the metabolic memory effect, induced by chronic exposure to high glucose in human endothelial cells.