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      Characteristics and Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Young Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: The objective was to analyze the incidence, risk factors, management, and complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the young patient in Spain. Methods: Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome were analyzed in patients younger than 45 years admitted with an AMI diagnosis to the Coronary Units of 58 Spanish hospitals from 15th May to 15th December 2000. Results: Six thousand two hundred and ten consecutive patients were registered, 7% out of them were <45 years old. Outcome was better in the younger group, with a lower mortality rate at 28 days (3.7 vs. 11.9%; p < 0.001), demonstrating that age <45 years is an independent protective factor for mortality (relative risk: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.23–0.73; p < 0.001). This difference remained at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: AMI in young patients presents distinct clinical characteristics, a different treatment, management and outcome with respect to the older group.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Impact of age on management and outcome of acute coronary syndrome: observations from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE).

          Evidence-based cardiac therapies are underutilized in elderly patients. We assessed differences in practice patterns, comorbidities, and in-hospital event rates, by age and type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We studied 24165 ACS patients in 102 hospitals in 14 countries stratified by age. Approximately two-thirds of patients were men, but this proportion decreased with age. In elderly patients (> or = 65 years), history of angina, transient ischemic attack/stroke, myocardial infarction(MI), congestive heart failure, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, hypertension or atrial fibrillation were more common, and delay in seeking medical attention and non-ST-segment elevation MI were significantly higher. Aspirin, beta-blockers, thrombolytic therapy, statins and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were prescribed less, while calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were prescribed more often to elderly patients. Unfractionated heparin was prescribed more often in young patients, while low-molecular-weight heparins were similarly prescribed across all age groups. Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rates significantly decreased with age. The rate of CABG surgery was highest among patients aged 65-74 years (8.1%) and 55-64 years (7.7%), but reduced in the youngest (4.7%) and oldest (2.7%) groups. Major bleeding rates were 2-3% among patients aged 6% in those > or = 85 years. Hospital-mortality rates, adjusted for baseline risk differences, increased with age (odds ratio: 15.7 in patients > or = 85 years compared with those < 45 years). Many elderly ACS patients do not receive evidence-based therapies, highlighting the need for clinical trials targeted specifically at elderly cohorts, and quality-of-care programs that reinforce the use of such therapies among these individuals.
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            Preventing myocardial infarction in the young adult in the first place: how do the National Cholesterol Education Panel III guidelines perform?

            The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the new National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III guidelines in a group of young adults. These guidelines have been hailed as an improvement in their potential to identify individuals at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) complications. Compared with the NCEP II, the new guidelines will increase the number of patients who qualify for medical management. However, the effectiveness of these guidelines to identify young adults at risk for a cardiac event is yet to be studied. A retrospective review of clinical data from young adults (age
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              Myocardial infarction in young patients.

              Myocardial infarction in persons under the age of 45 years accounts for 6% to 10% of all myocardial infarctions in the United States. In this age group, it is predominantly a disease of men. Important risk factors include a family history of myocardial infarction before age 55 years, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity. Unlike older patients, approximately half of young patients have single-vessel coronary disease, and in up to 20%, the cause is not related to atherosclerosis. Coronary angiography may be warranted in young patients with myocardial infarction to define the anatomy of the disease and to permit optimal management.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                May 2007
                01 September 2006
                : 107
                : 4
                : 217-225
                Affiliations
                aHospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante, bHospital Clínico, Salamanca, cHospital General, Segovia, dHospital Universitario, Valladolid, eHospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol, A Coruña, fHospital Txagorritxu, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Ðlava, Spain
                Article
                95421 Cardiology 2007;107:217–225
                10.1159/000095421
                16953107
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 7, References: 22, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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