Quantification of butterfly diversity and species richness is of prime importance for evaluating the status of protected areas. Permanent line transect counts were used to record species richness and abundance of butterfly communities of different habitat types in Trishna wildlife sanctuary. A total of 1005 individuals representing 59 species in 48 genera belonging to five families were recorded in the present study. Of these, 23 species belonged to the family Nymphalidae and accounted for 38.98% of the total species and 45.20% of the total number of individuals. Mature secondary mixed moist deciduous forest showed the maximum diversity and species richness, while exotic grassland showed minimum diversity and species richness. Out of 59 species, 31 are new records for Tripura state, while 21 are unique species and nine are listed in the threatened category. This study revealed that mature secondary forests are more important for butterfly communities, while exotic grasslands have a negative impact on species composition.