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      A randomized trial of once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol or vilanterol versus placebo to determine effects on arterial stiffness in COPD

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Elevated arterial stiffness, measured by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), is a cardiovascular risk surrogate and is potentially modifiable by inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta 2-agonist combinations in patients with COPD.

          Materials and methods

          The effects of once-daily inhaled fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) 100/25 µg, VI 25 µg, versus placebo on arterial stiffness in patients with COPD and baseline aPWV ≥11.0 m/s were investigated in a 24-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, stratified (by COPD exacerbation history), parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Eligible patients were ≥40 years old, with ≥10 pack-year smoking history, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1)/forced vital capacity ≤0.70, and post-bronchodilator FEV 1 ≤70% of predicted. Patients with a major cardiovascular event in the previous 6 months/current severe heart failure/uncontrolled hypertension were excluded. Primary endpoint is change from baseline in aPWV after 24 weeks of treatment. Safety analyses included adverse events (AEs).


          The intent-to-treat population included 430 patients: FF/VI (n=135), VI (n=154), and placebo (n=141). Patients were predominantly male (79%) and Asian or White (each 48%), with a mean age of 68.5 years (standard deviation [SD] =7.9), percentage predicted post-bronchodilator FEV 1 50.1% (SD =13.3), and aPWV 13.26 m/s (SD =2.22) at screening. At 24 weeks, mean (standard error [SE]) changes from baseline in aPWV were −1.75 m/s (SE =0.26, FF/VI), −1.95 m/s (SE =0.24, VI), and −1.97 m/s (SE =0.28, placebo). AEs occurred in 57% (FF/VI), 51% (VI), and 41% (placebo) of patients.


          No differences were observed in aPWV-adjusted mean change from baseline for FF/VI 100/25 µg, compared with placebo.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Mortality in COPD: Role of comorbidities.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an increasing burden throughout the world. COPD-related mortality is probably underestimated because of the difficulties associated with identifying the precise cause of death. Respiratory failure is considered the major cause of death in advanced COPD. Comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer are also major causes and, in mild-to-moderate COPD, are the leading causes of mortality. The links between COPD and these conditions are not fully understood. However, a link through the inflammation pathway has been suggested, as persistent low-grade pulmonary and systemic inflammation, both known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer, are present in COPD independent of cigarette smoking. Lung-specific measurements, such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), predict mortality in COPD and in the general population. However, composite tools, such as health-status measurements (e.g. St George's Respiratory Questionnaire) and the BODE index, which incorporates Body mass index, lung function (airflow Obstruction), Dyspnoea and Exercise capacity, predict mortality better than FEV(1) alone. These multidimensional tools may be more valuable because, unlike predictive approaches based on single parameters, they can reflect the range of comorbidities and the complexity of underlying mechanisms associated with COPD. The current paper reviews the role of comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality, the putative underlying pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid conditions (i.e. inflammation), and the tools used to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality.
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             P P RICKHAM (1964)
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              Interpreting thresholds for a clinically significant change in health status in asthma and COPD.

              Health status (or Health-Related Quality of Life) measurement is an established method for assessing the overall efficacy of treatments for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Such measurements can indicate the potential clinical significance of a treatment's effect. This paper is concerned with methods of estimating the threshold of clinical significance for three widely used health status questionnaires for asthma and COPD: the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. It discusses the methodology used to obtain such estimates and shows that the estimates appear to be fairly reliable; ie. for a given questionnaire, similar estimates may be obtained in different studies. These empirically derived thresholds are all mean estimates with confidence intervals around them. The presence of these confidence intervals affects the way in which the thresholds may be used to draw inferences concerning the clinical relevance of clinical trial results. A new system of judging the magnitude of clinically significant results is proposed. Finally, an attempt is made to translate these thresholds into scenarios that illustrate what a clinically significant change with treatment may mean to an individual patient.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                19 January 2017
                : 12
                : 351-365
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine and UAB Lung Health Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Wales Heart Research Institute, Cardiff
                [3 ]GSK, Stockley Park, Uxbridge, UK
                [4 ]GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Courtney Crim, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3398, USA, Tel +1 919 483 3765, Fax +1 919 483 4300, Email courtney.c.crim@
                © 2017 Bhatt et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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