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      Cellular immune responses of pigs after primary inoculation with porcine respiratory coronavirus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus and challenge with transmissible gastroenteritis virus


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          The contribution of cell-mediated immunity to protective immunity against virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection conferred by primary porcine respiratry coronavirus (PRCV) or TGEV exposure was assessed in pigs that were challenged with TGEV 24 days after a primary oronasal inoculation with PRCV or TGEV when 11 days old. PRCV exposure induced partial protection against TGEV challenge in suckling pigs based upon a decreased number of diarrhea cases (42% vs. 90% in age-matched control pigs), limited virus shedding in feces, and increases in virus-neutralizing serum antibody titers; in contrast, all 11-day-old pigs inoculated with TGEV were completely protected after challenge. Weaned pigs were also studied to eliminate any possibility that lactogenic immunity from contact PRCV-exposed sows contributed to protection against TGEV. Once weaned, none of the PRCV-exposed or age-matched control pigs had diarrhea after TGEV challenge; moreover, both groups exhibited less rectal virus shedding than suckling pigs. Vigorous lymphocyte proliferative responses (> 96 000 counts per minute (cpm)) were detected in mononuclear cells prepared from mesenteric (MLN) and bronchial (BLN) lymph nodes of TGEV-primed pigs. Analyses of these responses indicate that virus-specific cell-mediated immune responses correlated with protection against rectal and nasal virus shedding after TGEV challenge. Primary inoculation of 11-day-old pigs with PRCV induced moderate, transient virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation (> 47 000 cpm) in MLN from both suckling and weaned pigs after TGEV challenge. Substantial BLN proliferative responses (> 80 000 cpm) correlated with failure to detect TGEV in nasal secretions from these pigs. Virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in spleens was delayed in onset and of lower magnitude than that observed in MLN and BLN. Virulent TGEV exposure resulted in increased percentages of T cell subsets, especially in the lamina propria and MLN, mucosaassociated lymphoid tissues in proximity to the primary replication site of TGEV in the small intestine. Our results confirm that PRCV infection primes anti-viral immune responses and, thus, contributes to partial immunity against virulent TGEV challenge.

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          Most cited references44

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          Isolation of a porcine respiratory, non-enteric coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis.

          A porcine respiratory, non-enteric virus which is related to the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) has been isolated in pigs and in cell culture. The isolate was designated TLM 83. It has become very widespread and enzootic among the swine population in Belgium and in other swine raising countries. It causes an infection of the lungs and appears to spread by aerogenic route. It does not replicate in the enteric tract. The experimental infection in conventional and gnotobiotic pigs in isolation remains subclinical. The infection, either experimental or in the field, results in the formation of antibodies which neutralise the classical enteric TGEV. Based on this relationship, this virus is assumed to be a new TGEV-related porcine respiratory coronavirus or TGEV itself which has totally lost its tropism for the enteric tract.
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            Antibody responses in serum, colostrum, and milk of swine after infection or vaccination with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

            The antibody response of pregnant swine to transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus was studied, with special reference to the titers and the immunoglobulin (Ig) class of TGE neutralizing antibodies in colostrum and milk. Animals vaccinated twice intramuscularly or intramammarily with live attenuated TGE virus developed high levels of antibodies in serum and colostrum, but the levels in milk declined markedly within a few days post-farrowing. In contrast, animals naturally or experimentally infected with virulent virus generally developed lower levels of antibodies in serum and colostrum but maintained higher levels in milk, as compared to the vaccinated animals. Gel filtration studies indicated that antibodies in milk from vaccinated animals were primarily of the IgG class, whereas those from the naturally or experimentally infected animals were primarily of the IgA class. The ability of sows to transmit a high degree of passive immunity to their suckling progeny was more closely associated with TGE antibodies of the IgA than the IgG class. Present evidence suggests that high levels of TGE antibodies of the IgA class occur in milk as a result of an infection of the intestinal tract. Probable reasons for this are discussed.
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              Immunoglobulin A (IgA): molecular and cellular interactions involved in IgA biosynthesis and immune response.


                Author and article information

                Vet Immunol Immunopathol
                Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol
                Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
                Published by Elsevier B.V.
                29 March 2000
                September 1995
                29 March 2000
                : 48
                : 1
                : 35-54
                [a ]Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
                [b ]USDA, Helminthic Diseases Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author.

                Current address: PRISM Productions, 5040 Pine Creek Drive, Westerville, OH 43081, USA.


                Current address: Department of Microbiology, The Mucosal Immunization Research Group and The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, 845 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170, USA.

                Copyright © 1995 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 29 November 1994

                Veterinary medicine
                transmissible gastroenteritis virus,porcine respiratory coronavirus,cellular immunity,lymphocyte proliferation,lymphocyte subsets,t lymphocytes


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