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      miR-29a-5p Inhibits Prenatal Hair Placode Formation Through Targeting EDAR by ceRNA Regulatory Network


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          Hair placode formation is an important stage of hair follicle morphogenesis and it is a complex process facilitated by non-coding RNAs. In this study, we conducted whole transcriptome sequencing analysis of skin, heart, liver, lung, and kidney tissues of day 41 (E41) normal and hairless pig embryos, and respectively detected 15, 8, and 515 skin-specific differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs. Furthermore, 18 competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks were constructed. Following weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of stages E39, E41, E45, E52, and E60, between normal and hairless pig embryos, only two ceRNAs (lncRNA2162.1/miR-29a-5p/BMPR1b and lncRNA627.1/miR-29a-5p/EDAR) that showed period-specific differential expression in E41 skin were retained. Dual-luciferase reporter assays further indicated that EDAR was a direct, functioning target of miR-29a-5p and that no binding site was found in BMPR1b. Moreover, miR-29a-5p overexpression inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of EDAR while no significant differential expression of BMPR1b was detected. In addition, over-expressed lncRNA627.1 reduces the expression of miR-29a-5p and increase EDAR expression while inhibits lncRNA627.1 resulted in a opposite expression trend. Cell proliferation result demonstrated that lower expression of EDAR and lncRNA627.1 inhibited hair placode precursor cells (HPPCs) proliferation in a manner similar to that shown by over-expressed miR-29a-5p. This study identified that miR-29a-5p inhibited HPPCs proliferation via the suppression of EDAR expression in the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway, while lncRNA627.1 rescues EDAR expression. Our study provides a basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ceRNA complex, miR29a-5p/EDA R/lncRNA627.1, that could regulate hair placode formation, which may help decipher diseases affecting human hair.

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          Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2

          In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0550-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks.

            Cytoscape is an open source software project for integrating biomolecular interaction networks with high-throughput expression data and other molecular states into a unified conceptual framework. Although applicable to any system of molecular components and interactions, Cytoscape is most powerful when used in conjunction with large databases of protein-protein, protein-DNA, and genetic interactions that are increasingly available for humans and model organisms. Cytoscape's software Core provides basic functionality to layout and query the network; to visually integrate the network with expression profiles, phenotypes, and other molecular states; and to link the network to databases of functional annotations. The Core is extensible through a straightforward plug-in architecture, allowing rapid development of additional computational analyses and features. Several case studies of Cytoscape plug-ins are surveyed, including a search for interaction pathways correlating with changes in gene expression, a study of protein complexes involved in cellular recovery to DNA damage, inference of a combined physical/functional interaction network for Halobacterium, and an interface to detailed stochastic/kinetic gene regulatory models.
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              BEDTools: a flexible suite of utilities for comparing genomic features

              Motivation: Testing for correlations between different sets of genomic features is a fundamental task in genomics research. However, searching for overlaps between features with existing web-based methods is complicated by the massive datasets that are routinely produced with current sequencing technologies. Fast and flexible tools are therefore required to ask complex questions of these data in an efficient manner. Results: This article introduces a new software suite for the comparison, manipulation and annotation of genomic features in Browser Extensible Data (BED) and General Feature Format (GFF) format. BEDTools also supports the comparison of sequence alignments in BAM format to both BED and GFF features. The tools are extremely efficient and allow the user to compare large datasets (e.g. next-generation sequencing data) with both public and custom genome annotation tracks. BEDTools can be combined with one another as well as with standard UNIX commands, thus facilitating routine genomics tasks as well as pipelines that can quickly answer intricate questions of large genomic datasets. Availability and implementation: BEDTools was written in C++. Source code and a comprehensive user manual are freely available at http://code.google.com/p/bedtools Contact: aaronquinlan@gmail.com; imh4y@virginia.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                12 May 2022
                : 10
                [1] 1 National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding , Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction , Ministry of Agriculture , College of Animal Science and Technology , China Agricultural University , Beijing, China
                [2] 2 Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Product Safety Engineering , Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine , Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hefei, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: De-Li Shi, Sorbonne University, France

                Reviewed by: Mingxing Lei, Chongqing University, China

                Thomas S. Lisse, University of Miami, United States

                *Correspondence: Xiangdong Ding, xding@ 123456cau.edu.cn
                [ † ]

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Morphogenesis and Patterning, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Copyright © 2022 Jiang, Liu, Zou, Li and Ding.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 22 March 2022
                : 28 April 2022
                Cell and Developmental Biology
                Original Research

                hair placode formation,cerna,mirna-29a-5p,edar,cell proliferation


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