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      Silicon Quantum Electronics

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          Abstract

          This review describes recent groundbreaking results in Si, Si/SiGe and dopant-based quantum dots, and it highlights the remarkable advances in Si-based quantum physics that have occurred in the past few years. This progress has been possible thanks to materials development for both Si quantum devices, and thanks to the physical understanding of quantum effects in silicon. Recent critical steps include the isolation of single electrons, the observation of spin blockade and single-shot read-out of individual electron spins in both dopants and gated quantum dots in Si. Each of these results has come with physics that was not anticipated from previous work in other material systems. These advances underline the significant progress towards the realization of spin quantum bits in a material with a long spin coherence time, crucial for quantum computation and spintronics.

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          Most cited references 83

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          Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope

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            Quantum Computing

            Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusual phenomena leave little doubt as to its fundamental correctness. In fact, without quantum mechanics we could not explain the workings of a laser, nor indeed how a fridge magnet operates. Over the last several decades quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit these unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes. Many research groups around the world are working towards one of the most ambitious goals humankind has ever embarked upon: a quantum computer that promises to exponentially improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for this task---ranging from single particles of light to superconducting circuits---and it is not yet clear which, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain what the major challenges are for the future.
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              A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires

              A method combining laser ablation cluster formation and vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth was developed for the synthesis of semiconductor nanowires. In this process, laser ablation was used to prepare nanometer-diameter catalyst clusters that define the size of wires produced by VLS growth. This approach was used to prepare bulk quantities of uniform single-crystal silicon and germanium nanowires with diameters of 6 to 20 and 3 to 9 nanometers, respectively, and lengths ranging from 1 to 30 micrometers. Studies carried out with different conditions and catalyst materials confirmed the central details of the growth mechanism and suggest that well-established phase diagrams can be used to predict rationally catalyst materials and growth conditions for the preparation of nanowires.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                22 June 2012
                2013-04-16
                Article
                10.1103/RevModPhys.85.961
                1206.5202

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 961 (2013)
                Accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics. 64 pages, 62 figures
                cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph

                Quantum physics & Field theory, Nanophysics

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