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      Analysis of Chagas disease vectors occurrence data: the Argentinean triatomine species database

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          Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease and Trypanosoma cruzi (its etiological agent) is mainly transmitted by triatomines ( Hemiptera : Reduviidae ). All triatomine species are considered as potential vectors; thus, their geographic distribution and habitat information should be a fundamental guide for the surveillance and control of Chagas disease. Currently, of the 137 species distributed in the Americas ( Justi and Galvão 2017), 17 species are cited for Argentina: Panstrongylus geniculatus , P. guentheri , P. megistus , P. rufotuberculatus , Psammolestes coreodes , Triatoma breyeri , T. delpontei , T. eratyrusiformis , T. garciabesi , T. guasayana , T. infestans , T. limai , T. patagonica , T. platensis , T. rubrofasciata , T. rubrovaria and T. sordida . Almost 20 years have passed since the publication of the “Atlas of the Triatominae ” by Carcavallo et al. (1998) and no work has been done to provide an updated complete integration and analysis of the existing information for Argentinean triatomine species. Here we provide a detailed temporal, spatial and ecological analysis of updated occurrence data for triatomines present in Argentina.

          New information

          This is the first database of the 17 triatomine species present in Argentina (15917 records), with a critical analysis of the temporal, spatial and ecological characteristics of 9788 records. The information spans the last 100 years (1918–2019) and it was mostly obtained from the DataTri database and from the Argentinean Vector Reference Center. As 70% of the occurrences corresponded to the last 20 years, the information was split into two broad periods (pre-2000 and post-2000). Occurrence data for most species show distribution range contractions, which, from the pre-2000 to post-2000 period, became restricted mainly to the dry and humid Chaco ecoregions. Concurrently, the highest species richness foci occurred within those ecoregions. The species T. infestans , T. sordida , T. garciabesi and T. guasayana mostly colonise human dwelling habitats. This study provides the most comprehensive picture available for Argentinean triatomine species and we hope that any knowledge gaps will encourage others to keep this information updated to assist health policy-makers to make decisions based on the best evidence.

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          Distorted Views of Biodiversity: Spatial and Temporal Bias in Species Occurrence Data

          Boakes et al. compile and analyze a historical dataset of 170,000 bird sightings over two centuries and show how changing trends in data gathering may confound a true picture of biodiversity change.
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            The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

            Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.
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              Global mapping of infectious disease

              The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer ‘cognitive surplus’ through crowdsourcing.

                Author and article information

                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                12 November 2020
                : 8
                [1 ] Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE CONICET-CCT La Plata-UNLP), La Plata, Argentina Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE CONICET-CCT La Plata-UNLP) La Plata Argentina
                [2 ] Centro de Referencia de Vectores (CeReVe), Coordinación Nacional de Vectores, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Santa Maria de Punilla, Argentina Centro de Referencia de Vectores (CeReVe), Coordinación Nacional de Vectores, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación Santa Maria de Punilla Argentina
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Soledad Ceccarelli ( soledad.ceccarelli@ 123456gmail.com ).

                Academic editor: Laurence Livermore

                58076 14285
                Soledad Ceccarelli, Agustín Balsalobre, Maria Eugenia Cano, Delmi Canale, Patricia Lobbia, Raúl Stariolo, Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich, Gerardo Anibal Marti

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, References: 48
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Data Management
                Zoology & Animal Biology
                General ecology
                Central America and the Caribbean
                North America
                South America


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