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      The size distribution of desert dust aerosols and its impact on the Earth system

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      Aeolian Research

      Elsevier BV

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          Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate.

          The environmental conditions of Earth, including the climate, are determined by physical, chemical, biological, and human interactions that transform and transport materials and energy. This is the "Earth system": a highly complex entity characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages between disparate components. One important part of this system is the iron cycle, in which iron-containing soil dust is transported from land through the atmosphere to the oceans, affecting ocean biogeochemistry and hence having feedback effects on climate and dust production. Here we review the key components of this cycle, identifying critical uncertainties and priorities for future research.
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            Air pollution and health.

            The health effects of air pollution have been subject to intense study in recent years. Exposure to pollutants such as airborne particulate matter and ozone has been associated with increases in mortality and hospital admissions due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. These effects have been found in short-term studies, which relate day-to-day variations in air pollution and health, and long-term studies, which have followed cohorts of exposed individuals over time. Effects have been seen at very low levels of exposure, and it is unclear whether a threshold concentration exists for particulate matter and ozone below which no effects on health are likely. In this review, we discuss the evidence for adverse effects on health of selected air pollutants.
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              Variability of Absorption and Optical Properties of Key Aerosol Types Observed in Worldwide Locations

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aeolian Research
                Aeolian Research
                Elsevier BV
                18759637
                December 2014
                December 2014
                : 15
                :
                : 53-71
                10.1016/j.aeolia.2013.09.002
                © 2014

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