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      Sustained Benefit from Ultrafiltration in Moderate Congestive Heart Failure




      S. Karger AG

      Ultrafiltration, Heart failure, Lung water, Exercise, Norepinephrine

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          Body fluids, particularly in the thorax, are increased in moderate congestive heart failure, even if diuretic treatment is appropriate. Ultrafiltration, differently from diuretics, removes isotonic fluid and therefore the greatest possible amount of sodium per unit of fluid withdrawn, providing a physiologic dehydration. This results in improvement in the patient’s clinical condition, exercise capacity, lung function, as shown by improvement of standard pulmonary function tests, lung mechanics during exercise, and norepinephrine kinetics during exercise and orthostatic tilting.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Ventilatory constraints during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.

          We examined the degree of ventilatory constraint in patients with a history of chronic heart failure (CHF; n = 11; mean +/- SE age, 62 +/- 4 years; cardiac index [CI], 2.0 +/- 0.1; and ejection fraction [EF], 24 +/- 2%) and in control subjects (CTLS; n = 8; age, 61 +/- 5 years; CI, 2.6 +/- 0.3) by plotting the tidal flow-volume responses to graded exercise in relationship to the maximal flow-volume envelope (MFVL). Inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuvers were performed to follow changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) during exercise, and the degree of expiratory flow limitation was assessed as the percent of the tidal volume (VT) that met or exceeded the expiratory boundary of the MFVL. CHF patients had significantly (p 45% of the VT in CHF patients vs < 25% in CTLS (despite the higher VE in CTLS). The least fit and most symptomatic CHF patients demonstrated the lowest EELV, the greatest degree of flow limitation, and a limited response to increased inspired carbon dioxide during exercise, all consistent with VE constraint. We conclude that patients with CHF commonly breathe near RV during exertion and experience expiratory flow limitation. This results in VE constraint and may contribute to exertional intolerance.
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            Cardiomegaly as a possible cause of lung dysfunction in patients with heart failure.

            Our hypothesis is that an enlarged heart may compete for space with the lungs, causing a restrictive pattern that is often seen in patients with chronic heart failure. Eighty patients with stable congestive heart failure in New York Heart Association classes II and III participated in the study. We measured cardiothoracic index (chest radiography), FEV1, vital capacity, alveolar volume, lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and its 2 subcomponents alveolar-capillary membrane diffusion (DM), and pulmonary capillary blood volume. Reliable measurements were obtained in 72 of 80 participants enrolled. Cardiothoracic index averaged 57% +/- 7%. FEV1, vital capacity, alveolar volume, DLCO, and DM were inversely related to the cardiothoracic index (r = -0.514, -0.557, -0.522, -0.475, and -0.480, respectively). However, the relations of DLCO and DM with the cardiothoracic index were lost when DLCO and DM were adjusted for alveolar volume. A significant correlation (P < .01) was found between alveolar volume and vital capacity, FEV1, and DLCO (r = 0.799, 0.705, and 0.614, respectively). At multivariate analysis, cardiothoracic index, FEV1, and pulmonary capillary blood volume were independent predictors of DLCO, whereas alveolar volume, FEV1, and left ventricular ejection fraction were independent predictors of DM. Cardiac enlargement in chronic heart failure appears to be involved in causing restrictive lung pattern and a reduced alveolar volume that disturbs carbon monoxide diffusion.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              18 January 2002
              : 96
              : 3-4
              : 183-189
              Centro Cardiologico Monzino, I.R.C.C.S., Institute of Cardiology, University of Milan, Italy
              47402 Cardiology 2001;96:183–189
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 5, References: 41, Pages: 7


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