The current understanding of the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the airways and lung was initially based on the localization of a series of such channels in a subset of sensory nerve fibers of the respiratory tract. Soon after, TRP channel expression and function have been identified in respiratory nonneuronal cells. In these two locations, TRPs regulate physiological processes aimed at integrating different stimuli to maintain homeostasis and to react to harmful agents and tissue injury by building up inflammatory responses and repair processes. There is no doubt that TRPs localized in the sensory network contribute to airway neurogenic inflammation, and emerging evidence underlines the role of nonneuronal TRPs in orchestrating inflammation and repair in the respiratory tract. However, recent basic and clinical studies have offered clues regarding the contribution of neuronal and nonneuronal TRPs in the mechanism of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, cough, and other respiratory diseases.