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      Consistent Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Saliva

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          Abstract

          The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was detected in the self-collected saliva of 91.7% (11/12) of patients. Serial saliva viral load monitoring generally showed a declining trend. Live virus was detected in saliva by viral culture. Saliva is a promising noninvasive specimen for diagnosis, monitoring, and infection control in patients with 2019-nCoV infection.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome.

            An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been reported in Hong Kong. We investigated the viral cause and clinical presentation among 50 patients. We analysed case notes and microbiological findings for 50 patients with SARS, representing more than five separate epidemiologically linked transmission clusters. We defined the clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease and investigated the causal agents by chest radiography and laboratory testing of nasopharyngeal aspirates and sera samples. We compared the laboratory findings with those submitted for microbiological investigation of other diseases from patients whose identity was masked. Patients' age ranged from 23 to 74 years. Fever, chills, myalgia, and cough were the most frequent complaints. When compared with chest radiographic changes, respiratory symptoms and auscultatory findings were disproportionally mild. Patients who were household contacts of other infected people and had older age, lymphopenia, and liver dysfunction were associated with severe disease. A virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae was isolated from two patients. By use of serological and reverse-transcriptase PCR specific for this virus, 45 of 50 patients with SARS, but no controls, had evidence of infection with this virus. A coronavirus was isolated from patients with SARS that might be the primary agent associated with this disease. Serological and molecular tests specific for the virus permitted a definitive laboratory diagnosis to be made and allowed further investigation to define whether other cofactors play a part in disease progression.
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              Respiratory virus infection among hospitalized adult patients with or without clinically apparent respiratory infection: a prospective cohort study

               K.K.W. To,  K.-H. Chan,  J. Ho (2019)
              Objectives To determine the viral epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with and without clinically apparent respiratory tract infection. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted during the 2018 winter influenza season. Adult patients with fever/respiratory symptoms (fever/RS group) were age- and sex-matched with patients without fever/RS (non-fever/RS group) in a 1:1 ratio. Respiratory viruses were tested using NxTAG™ Respiratory Pathogen Panel IVD, a commercially-available multiplex PCR panel. Results A total of 214 acutely hospitalized patients were included in the final analysis, consisting of 107 with fever/RS (fever/RS group), and 107 age- and sex-matched patients without fever/RS (non-fever/RS group). Respiratory viruses were detected in 34.1% (73/214) of patients, and co-infection occurred in 7.9% (17/214) of patients. The incidence of respiratory virus was higher in the fever/RS group than in the non-fever/RS group (44.9% (48/107) versus 23.4% (25/107), p 0.001). Influenza B virus, enterovirus/rhinovirus and coronaviruses were detected more frequently in the fever/RS group, whereas parainfluenza virus 4B and adenovirus were detected more frequently in the non-fever/RS group. Among the non-fever/RS group, chest discomfort was more common among patients tested positive for respiratory viruses than those without respiratory virus detected (44% (11/25) versus 22% (18/82), p 0.04). Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be frequently detected among hospitalized patients without typical features of respiratory tract infection. These patients may be a source of nosocomial outbreaks.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Infect Dis
                Clin. Infect. Dis
                cid
                Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
                Oxford University Press (US )
                1058-4838
                1537-6591
                12 February 2020
                12 February 2021
                Affiliations
                [1 ] State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                [2 ] Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                [3 ] Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, The University of Hong Kong–Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China
                [4 ] Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                [5 ] Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                [6 ] Intensive Care Unit, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                [7 ] Department of Pathology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                [8 ] Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: K. K.-W. To, Department of Microbiology, 19th Floor, Block T, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ( kelvinto@ 123456hku.hk ).

                K. K.-W. T., O. T.-Y. T., C. C.-Y. Y., and K.-H. C. contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                ciaa149
                10.1093/cid/ciaa149
                7108139
                32047895
                © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

                This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Pages: 4
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Theme-Based Research Scheme
                Award ID: T11/707/15
                Funded by: Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen 10.13039/501100012151
                Award ID: SZSM201911014
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