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      Diversity of Akanthomyces on moths (Lepidoptera) in Thailand

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          Abstract

          Akanthomyces is a genus of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi from the family Cordycipitaceae ( Ascomycota , Hypocreales ). Its species occurs on two different types of hosts, spiders and insects, and in the latter case specifically Lepidoptera adults. Three new species of Akanthomyces , A. noctuidarum , A. pyralidarum , and A. tortricidarum occurring on adult moths from Thailand are proposed based on the differences of their morphological characteristics and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses using a combined dataset, including the internal transcribed spacer regions, the large subunit of the ribosomal DNA, translation elongation factor 1-α, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, support the delimitation of these new species in Akanthomyces .

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          Most cited references 33

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          Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi

          Cordyceps, comprising over 400 species, was historically classified in the Clavicipitaceae, based on cylindrical asci, thickened ascus apices and filiform ascospores, which often disarticulate into part-spores. Cordyceps was characterized by the production of well-developed often stipitate stromata and an ecology as a pathogen of arthropods and Elaphomyces with infrageneric classifications emphasizing arrangement of perithecia, ascospore morphology and host affiliation. To refine the classification of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae, the phylogenetic relationships of 162 taxa were estimated based on analyses consisting of five to seven loci, including the nuclear ribosomal small and large subunits (nrSSU and nrLSU), the elongation factor 1α (tef1), the largest and the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (rpb1 and rpb2), β-tubulin (tub), and mitochondrial ATP6 (atp6). Our results strongly support the existence of three clavicipitaceous clades and reject the monophyly of both Cordyceps and Clavicipitaceae. Most diagnostic characters used in current classifications of Cordyceps (e.g., arrangement of perithecia, ascospore fragmentation, etc.) were not supported as being phylogenetically informative; the characters that were most consistent with the phylogeny were texture, pigmentation and morphology of stromata. Therefore, we revise the taxonomy of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae to be consistent with the multi-gene phylogeny. The family Cordycipitaceae is validated based on the type of Cordyceps, C. militaris, and includes most Cordyceps species that possess brightly coloured, fleshy stromata. The new family Ophiocordycipitaceae is proposed based on Ophiocordyceps Petch, which we emend. The majority of species in this family produce darkly pigmented, tough to pliant stromata that often possess aperithecial apices. The new genus Elaphocordyceps is proposed for a subclade of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, which includes all species of Cordyceps that parasitize the fungal genus Elaphomyces and some closely related species that parasitize arthropods. The family Clavicipitaceae s. s. is emended and includes the core clade of grass symbionts (e.g., Balansia, Claviceps, Epichloë, etc.), and the entomopathogenic genus Hypocrella and relatives. In addition, the new genus Metacordyceps is proposed for Cordyceps species that are closely related to the grass symbionts in the Clavicipitaceae s. s. Metacordyceps includes teleomorphs linked to Metarhizium and other closely related anamorphs. Two new species are described, and lists of accepted names for species in Cordyceps, Elaphocordyceps, Metacordyceps and Ophiocordyceps are provided.
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            Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects.

            Cordyceps militaris is a potential harbour of bio-metabolites for herbal drugs and evidences are available about its applications for revitalization of various systems of the body from ancient times. Amongst all the species, C. militaris is considered as the oldest source of some useful chemical constituents. Besides their popular applications for tonic medicine by the all stairs of the community, the constituents of C. militaris are now used extensively in modern systems of medicine. The current survey records the mysterious potentials of C. militaris are boosting up the present herbal treatments, as well as gearing up the green pharmacy revolution, in order to create a friendly environment with reasonable safety. Evidence showed that the active principles of C. militaris are beneficial to act as pro-sexual, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant/anti-aging, anti-tumour/anti-cancer/anti-leukemic, anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-fibrotic, steroidogenic, hypoglacaemic, hypolipidaemic, anti-angiogenetic, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-fatigue, neuroprotective, liver-protective, reno-protective as well as pneumo-protective, let alone their other synergistic activities, which let it be marketable in the western countries as over-the-counter medicine. A number of culture techniques for this mushroom have been noticed, for example, storage/stock culture, pre-culture, popular/indigenous culture (spawn culture, husked rice culture and saw dust culture) and, special/laboratory culture (shaking culture, submerged culture, surface liquid culture and continuous/repeated batch culture). The prospects for herbal biotechnology regarding drug discovery using C. militaris delivering what it has promised are high, as the technology is now extremely more powerful than before. This study chiefly highlights the medicinal uses of the mushroom C. militaris including its culture techniques, also aiming to draw sufficient attention of the researchers to the frontier research needs in this context. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Ancient and recent patterns of geographic speciation in the oyster mushroom Pleurotus revealed by phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences.

              Evidence from molecular systematic studies suggests that many mushroom species may be quite ancient. Gene phylogenies were developed to examine the relationship between reproductive isolation, genetic divergence, and biogeography in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus). Sequence data were obtained for two regions of DNA from populations belonging to eight intersterility groups (biological species). Phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the 5' portion of the nuclear encoded large subunit rDNA demonstrates an ancient origin for four intersterility groups of broad geographic distribution (world-wide), with a more recent radiation of several intersterility groups that are restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. An expanded analysis using sequence data from the more variable rDNA internal transcribed spacer region also reveals a phylogenetically based pattern of genetic divergence associated with allopatric speciation among populations from different continents in the Northern Hemisphere. The ability of rDNA sequences to resolve phylogenetic relationships among geographically isolated populations within intersterility groups illustrates the importance of biogeography for understanding speciation in Pleurotus. Patterns of geographic distribution among intersterility groups suggest that several species lineages evolved quite early, with recently evolved groups restricted to the Northern Hemisphere and older lineages occurring throughout the world. Based on phylogenetic evidence, analysis of historical biogeography using area cladograms shows that multiple dispersal and vicariance events are responsible for patterns of speciation observed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2020
                30 July 2020
                : 71
                : 1-22
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Sudharto SH, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
                [2 ] Plant Microbe Interaction Research Team, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
                [3 ] Biotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Sudharto SH, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
                [4 ] Molecular and Applied Microbiology Laboratory, Central Laboratory of Research and Service, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Sudharto SH, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: J. Jennifer Luangsa-ard ( jajen@ 123456biotec.or.th ); Anto Budiharjo ( anto.budiharjo@ 123456live.undip.ac.id )

                Academic editor: Thorsten Lumbsch

                Article
                55126
                10.3897/mycokeys.71.55126
                7410849
                Arifah Nur Nuraini, Suchada Mongkolsamrit, Wijanarka Wijanarka, Donnaya Thanakitpipattana, J. Jennifer Luangsa-ard, Anto Budiharjo

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Ascomycota
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Asia

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