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      Establishment of one-step approach to detoxification of hypertoxic aconite based on the evaluation of alkaloids contents and quality

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          Aconite is a valuable drug and also a toxic material, which can be used only after detoxification processing. Although traditional processing methods can achieve detoxification effect as desired, there are some obvious drawbacks, including a significant loss of alkaloids and poor quality consistency. It is thus necessary to develop a new detoxification approach. In the present study, we designed a novel one-step detoxification approach by quickly drying fresh-cut aconite particles. In order to evaluate the technical advantages, the contents of mesaconitine, aconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylaconine, benzoylhypaconine, neoline, fuziline, songorine, and talatisamine were determined using HPLC and UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Multivariate analysis methods, such as Clustering analysis and Principle component analysis, were applied to determine the quality differences between samples. Our results showed that traditional processes could reduce toxicity as desired, but also led to more than 85.2% alkaloids loss. However, our novel one-step method was capable of achieving virtually the same detoxification effect, with only an approximately 30% alkaloids loss. Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis analyses suggested that Shengfupian and the novel products were significantly different from various traditional products. Acute toxicity testing showed that the novel products achieved a good detoxification effect, with its maximum tolerated dose being equivalent to 20 times of adult dosage. And cardiac effect testing also showed that the activity of the novel products was stronger than that of traditional products. Moreover, particles specification greatly improved the quality consistency of the novel products, which was immensely superior to the traditional products. These results would help guide the rational optimization of aconite processing technologies, providing better drugs for clinical treatment.

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          Most cited references 23

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          A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux.

          The processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (Ranunculaceae), an extensively used traditional Chinese medicine, is known as Fuzi in China (Chinese: ), "bushi" in Japan, "Kyeong-Po Buja" in Korea, Chinese aconite, monkshood or Chinese wolfsbane. It has been used to treat shock resulting from acute myocardial infarction, low blood pressure, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, etc.
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            Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control of rhizoma Coptidischinensis based on UPLC-PAD combined with chemometrics methods.

            To control the quality of rhizoma Coptidis, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of five active alkaloids and chemical fingerprint analysis. In quantitative analysis, the five alkaloids showed good regression (R > 0.9992) within test ranges and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.4-100.8%. The limit of detections and quantifications for five alkaloids in PAD were less than 0.07 and 0.22 microg/ml, respectively. In order to compare the UPLC fingerprints between rhizoma Coptidis from different origins, the chemometrics procedures, including similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to classify the rhizoma Coptidis samples according to their cultivated origins. Consistent results were obtained to show that rhizoma Coptidis samples could be successfully grouped in accordance with the province of origin. Furthermore, five marker constituents were screened out to be the main chemical marker, which could be applied to accurate discrimination and quality control for rhizoma Coptidis by quantitative analysis. This study revealed that UPLC-PAD method was simple, sensitive and reliable for quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis, moreover, for the quality evaluation and control of rhizoma Coptidis.
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              Aconitum sp. alkaloids: the modulation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels, toxicity and antinociceptive properties.

              Alkaloids from Aconitum sp., used as analgesics in traditional Chinese medicine, were investigated to elucidate their antinociceptive and toxic properties considering: (1) binding to Na+ channel epitope site 2, (2) alterations in synaptosomal Na+ and Ca2+ concentration ([Na+]i, [Ca2+]i), (3) arrhythmogenic action of isolated atria, (4) antinociceptive and (5) acute toxic action in mice. The study revealed a high affinity group (Ki 1 microM) and a low affinity group (Ki 10 microM) of alkaloids binding to site 2. The compounds of the high affinity group induce an increase in synaptosomal [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i (EC50 3 microM), are antinociceptive (ED50, 25 microg/kg), provoke tachyarrhythmia and are highly toxic (LD50 70 microg/kg), whereas low affinity alkaloids reduce [Ca2+]i, induce bradycardia and are less antinociceptive (ED50 20 mg/kg) and less toxic (LD50 30 mg/kg). These results suggest that the alkaloids can be grouped in Na+ channel activating and blocking compounds, but none of the alkaloids seem to be suitable as analgesics because of the low LD50/ED50 values.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 January 2017
                : 15
                : 1
                : 49-61
                1Provincial and State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of System Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075, China
                2China Military Institute of Chinese Medicine, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039, China
                3Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China
                4Integrative Medical Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039, China
                5Sichuan Good Doctor Panxi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xichang 610031, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: WANG Jia-Bo, E-mail: wjb0128@ 123456126.com ; YANG Ming, E-mail: yangming16@ 123456126.com

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: National Nature Science Fundation of China
                Award ID: 81274026
                Award ID: 81403115
                This work was supported by National Nature Science Fundation of China (Nos. 81274026 and 81403115).


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