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      Quantitative Tandem Affinity Purification, an Effective Tool to Investigate Protein Complex Composition in Plant Hormone Signaling: Strigolactones in the Spotlight

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          Abstract

          Phytohormones tightly regulate plant growth by integrating changing environmental and developmental cues. Although the key players have been identified in many plant hormonal pathways, the molecular mechanisms and mode of action of perception and signaling remain incompletely resolved. Characterization of protein partners of known signaling components provides insight into the formed protein complexes, but, unless quantification is involved, does not deliver much, if any, information about the dynamics of the induced or disrupted protein complexes. Therefore, in proteomics research, the discovery of what actually triggers, regulates or interrupts the composition of protein complexes is gaining importance. Here, tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) is combined with label-free quantification (LFQ) to a highly valuable tool to detect physiologically relevant, dynamic protein–protein interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures. To demonstrate its potential, we focus on the signaling pathway of one of the most recently discovered phytohormones, strigolactones.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The Arabidopsis bHLH transcription factors MYC3 and MYC4 are targets of JAZ repressors and act additively with MYC2 in the activation of jasmonate responses.

          Jasmonates (JAs) trigger an important transcriptional reprogramming of plant cells to modulate both basal development and stress responses. In spite of the importance of transcriptional regulation, only one transcription factor (TF), the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix MYC2, has been described so far as a direct target of JAZ repressors. By means of yeast two-hybrid screening and tandem affinity purification strategies, we identified two previously unknown targets of JAZ repressors, the TFs MYC3 and MYC4, phylogenetically closely related to MYC2. We show that MYC3 and MYC4 interact in vitro and in vivo with JAZ repressors and also form homo- and heterodimers with MYC2 and among themselves. They both are nuclear proteins that bind DNA with sequence specificity similar to that of MYC2. Loss-of-function mutations in any of these two TFs impair full responsiveness to JA and enhance the JA insensitivity of myc2 mutants. Moreover, the triple mutant myc2 myc3 myc4 is as impaired as coi1-1 in the activation of several, but not all, JA-mediated responses such as the defense against bacterial pathogens and insect herbivory. Our results show that MYC3 and MYC4 are activators of JA-regulated programs that act additively with MYC2 to regulate specifically different subsets of the JA-dependent transcriptional response.
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            NINJA connects the co-repressor TOPLESS to jasmonate signalling

            Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is a plant hormone that regulates a broad array of plant defence and developmental processes1–5. JA-Ile-responsive gene expression is regulated by the transcriptional activator MYC2 that interacts physically with the jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) repressor proteins. Upon JA-Ile perception, JAZ proteins are degraded and JA-Ile-dependent gene expression is activated6,7. The molecular mechanisms by which JAZ proteins repress gene expression remain unknown. Here we show that the JAZ proteins recruit the Groucho/Tup1-type co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL)8 and TPL-related proteins (TPRs) through a previously uncharacterized adaptor protein, designated Novel INteractor of JAZ (NINJA). NINJA acts as a transcriptional repressor of which the activity is mediated by a functional TPL-binding EAR repression motif. Accordingly, both NINJA and TPL proteins function as negative regulators of jasmonate responses. Our results point to TPL proteins as general co-repressors that affect multiple signalling pathways through the interaction with specific adaptor proteins. This new insight reveals how stress- and growth-related signalling cascades use common molecular mechanisms to regulate gene expression in plants.
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              D14-SCFD3-dependent degradation of D53 regulates strigolactone signaling

              Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of carotenoid-derived phytohormones essential for developmental processes shaping plant architecture and interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite the rapid progress in elucidating the SL biosynthetic pathway, the perception and signaling mechanisms of SL remain poorly understood. Here we show that DWARF53 (D53) acts as a repressor of SL signaling and SLs induce its degradation. We found that the rice d53 mutant, which produces an exaggerated number of tillers compared to wild type plants, is caused by a gain-of-function mutation and is insensitive to exogenous SL treatment. The D53 gene product shares predicted features with the class I Clp ATPase proteins and can form a complex with the α/β hydrolase protein DWARF14 (D14) and the F-box protein DWARF3 (D3), two previously identified signaling components potentially responsible for SL perception. We demonstrate that, in a D14- and D3-dependent manner, SLs induce D53 degradation by the proteasome and abrogate its activity in promoting axillary bud outgrowth. Our combined genetic and biochemical data reveal that D53 acts as a repressor of the SL signaling pathway, whose hormone-induced degradation represents a key molecular link between SL perception and responses.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                26 April 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University , Ghent, Belgium
                [2] 2Center for Plant Systems Biology, VIB , Ghent, Belgium
                [3] 3Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University , Ghent, Belgium
                [4] 4Center for Medical Biotechnology, VIB , Ghent, Belgium
                [5] 5UMR 1318, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique – Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin , Versailles, France
                [6] 6Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles – UPR 2301, Centre de Recherche de Gif, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique , Paris, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gerold J. M. Beckers, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

                Reviewed by: Sixue Chen, University of Florida, United States; Jan Hejatko, Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Czechia

                *Correspondence: Sofie Goormachtig, sofie.goormachtig@ 123456psb.vib-ugent.be

                This article was submitted to Plant Proteomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2018.00528
                5932160
                a1f33ac7-0998-4231-93c9-b1623216cee9
                Copyright © 2018 Struk, Braem, Walton, De Keyser, Boyer, Persiau, De Jaeger, Gevaert and Goormachtig.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 47, Pages: 12, Words: 0
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Methods

                Plant science & Botany

                strigolactones, smxl7, qtap, plant hormone signaling, protein dynamics

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