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      Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

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          Abstract

          The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH) and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH), against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

          Extrapulmonary involvement can occur in isolation or along with a pulmonary focus as in the case of patients with disseminated tuberculosis (TB). The recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has resulted in changing epidemiology and has once again brought extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) into focus. EPTB constitutes about 15 to 20 per cent of all cases of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients and accounts for more than 50 per cent of the cases in HIV-positive individuals. Lymph nodes are the most common site of involvement followed by pleural effusion and virtually every site of the body can be affected. Since the clinical presentation of EPTB is atypical, tissue samples for the confirmation of diagnostic can sometimes be difficult to procure, and the conventional diagnostic methods have a poor yield, the diagnosis is often delayed. Availability of computerised tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging laparoscopy, endoscopy have tremendously helped in anatomical localisation of EPTB. The disease usually responds to standard antituberculosis drug treatment. Biopsy and/or surgery is required to procure tissue samples for diagnosis and for managing complications. Further research is required for evolving the most suitable treatment regimens, optimal duration of treatment and safety when used with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART).
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            Community-based therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lima, Peru.

            Despite the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in nearly all low-income countries surveyed, effective therapy has been deemed too expensive and considered not to be feasible outside referral centers. We evaluated the results of community-based therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a poor section of Lima, Peru. We describe the first 75 patients to receive ambulatory treatment with individualized regimens for chronic multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in northern Lima. We conducted a retrospective review of the charts of all patients enrolled in the program between August 1, 1996, and February 1, 1999, and identified predictors of poor outcomes. The infecting strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were resistant to a median of six drugs. Among the 66 patients who completed four or more months of therapy, 83 percent (55) were probably cured at the completion of treatment. Five of these 66 patients (8 percent) died while receiving therapy. Only one patient continued to have positive cultures after six months of treatment. All patients in whom treatment failed or who died had extensive bilateral pulmonary disease. In a multiple Cox proportional-hazards regression model, the predictors of the time to treatment failure or death were a low hematocrit (hazard ratio, 4.09; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.35 to 12.36) and a low body-mass index (hazard ratio, 3.23; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 11.53). Inclusion of pyrazinamide and ethambutol in the regimen (when susceptibility was confirmed) was associated with a favorable outcome (hazard ratio for treatment failure or death, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.83). Community-based outpatient treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis can yield high cure rates even in resource-poor settings. Early initiation of appropriate therapy can preserve susceptibility to first-line drugs and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Global Tuberculosis Report 2013.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                28 July 2014
                : 8
                : 1029-1036
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [2 ]Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [3 ]Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
                [4 ]Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [5 ]Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA
                [6 ]Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohd Zobir Hussein, Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Tel +603 8946 6801, Fax +603 8943 5380, Email mzobir@ 123456upm.edu.my
                Article
                dddt-8-1029
                10.2147/DDDT.S63753
                4122184
                © 2014 Saifullah et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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