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      New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections Translated title: Nouvelles observations d’ Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) lors d’inspections pour Trichinella en France

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          The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars ( Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.

          Translated abstract

          Alaria alata (Diplostomidae : Trematoda) est parasite à l’état adulte de l’intestin grêle du Renard roux ( Vulpes vulpes), le principal hôte définitif en Europe. Les données existantes sur ce parasite chez le Sanglier ( Sus scrofa), le principal hôte paraténique, sont fragmentaires. L’objectif de cet article est de préciser l’importance et la distribution d’ Alaria alata chez les sangliers en France grâce aux déclarations de mésocercarioses obtenues lors des recherches obligatoires de Trichine sur les carcasses ces dernières années. Le recueil de ces déclarations montre que plus de 100 cas d’animaux positifs sont signalés chaque année, principalement dans le nordest de la France. Une première approche de la résistance à la congélation d’ Alaria alata dans la viande est présentée dans ce travail.

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          Most cited references 8

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          International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption.

          This document provides a uniform set of recommendations for the control of Trichinella at all levels (on the farm, at slaughter and in processed meats). These recommendations are based on the best scientific information available and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable control methods. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.
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            Biology of Alaria spp. and human exposition risk to Alaria mesocercariae-a review.

            Recent incidental background findings of Alaria alata mesocercariae ["Distomum muscularis suis," Duncker, 1896] in meat of wild boars during official Trichinella inspection initiated a re-assessment of the potential human health risk as posed by this parasite. The present review of the literature on Alaria biology shows that the human exposition risk should no longer be accepted to be negligible, as it demonstrates a general lack of knowledge in relevant areas of Alaria biology confounding any risk analysis. Sound risk assessment needs future studies which should concentrate on the most pressing questions of (1) the optimization and/or development of methods for reliable Alaria mesocercariae detection, (2) the distribution of the mesocercariae within their paratenic hosts, i.e., identification of potential predilection sites, particularly in wild boars, and (3) their prevalence in sylvatic populations of animals with respect to their introduction into the human food chain. Further, the degree and possibly also the species specificity of Alaria mesocercariae tenacity within the paratenic hosts and respective meat as pertaining to food technological treatments need to be elucidated. While these questions remain unanswered, it is an incontrovertible fact that Alaria mesocercariae have a potentially high human pathogenicity by both occupational and alimentary exposition.
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              Phylogenetic analysis of the Monogenea and their relationships with Digenea and Eucestoda inferred from 28S rDNA sequences.

              Platyhelminth phylogeny is controversial. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial domain C1 and the full domains D1 and C2 (358 nucleotides) from the 28S ribosomal RNA gene for 21 species from the Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, and, as the outgroup, Tricladida reveal major departures from prevailing theory. The Digenea and not the Monogenea (Monopisthocotylea and Polyopisthocotylea) form the sister group of the cestodes; the Monopisthocotylea and Polyopisthocotylea are each monophyletic, but the Monogenea do not form a monophylum; the sister group of the Digenea + Cestoda is the Polyopisthocotylea; and Monopisthocotylea are the sister group of all other parasitic flatworms.

                Author and article information

                Parasite : journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
                EDP Sciences
                August 2011
                15 August 2011
                : 18
                : 3 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/03 )
                : 271-275
                [1 ] JE 2533 – USC Anses “VECPAR”, UFR de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne 51, rue Cognacq-Jay 51096 Reims France
                [2 ] Anses, Laboratory for Animal Health, Anses Maisons-Alfort, UMR BIPAR, ENVA, UPEC 23, avenue du Général de Gaulle 94706 Maisons-Alfort France
                [3 ] Laboratoire départemental d’Analyses vétérinaires et alimentaires Chemin des Champs de la Loge BP 216 10006 Troyes Cedex France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Isabelle Vallée. Tel.: 33 (0)1 49 77 28 16. E-mail: ivallee@ 123456vet-alfort.fr
                parasite2011183p271 10.1051/parasite/2011183271
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Original Contribution


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