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      Recommendations for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Testing in Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Clinical Practice Guideline Update

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          Abstract

          Purpose.—To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing and its utility as a predictive marker in invasive breast cancer.

          Methods.—ASCO/CAP convened an Update Committee that included coauthors of the 2007 guideline to conduct a systematic literature review and update recommendations for optimal HER2 testing.

          Results.—The Update Committee identified criteria and areas requiring clarification to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH). The guideline was reviewed and approved by both organizations.

          Recommendations.—The Update Committee recommends that HER2 status (HER2 negative or positive) be determined in all patients with invasive (early stage or recurrence) breast cancer on the basis of one or more HER2 test results (negative, equivocal, or positive). Testing criteria define HER2-positive status when (on observing within an area of tumor that amounts to >10% of contiguous and homogeneous tumor cells) there is evidence of protein overexpression (IHC) or gene amplification (HER2 copy number or HER2/CEP17 ratio by ISH based on counting at least 20 cells within the area). If results are equivocal (revised criteria), reflex testing should be performed using an alternative assay (IHC or ISH). Repeat testing should be considered if results seem discordant with other histopathologic findings. Laboratories should demonstrate high concordance with a validated HER2 test on a sufficiently large and representative set of specimens. Testing must be performed in a laboratory accredited by CAP or another accrediting entity. The Update Committee urges providers and health systems to cooperate to ensure the highest quality testing.

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          Prognostic value of a combined estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemical score and comparison with the Genomic Health recurrence score in early breast cancer.

          We recently reported that the mRNA-based, 21-gene Genomic Health recurrence score (GHI-RS) provided additional prognostic information regarding distant recurrence beyond that obtained from classical clinicopathologic factors (age, nodal status, tumor size, grade, endocrine treatment) in women with early breast cancer, confirming earlier reports. The aim of this article is to determine how much of this information is contained in standard immunohistochemical (IHC) markers. The primary cohort comprised 1,125 estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) patients from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, had the GHI-RS computed, and had adequate tissue for the four IHC measurements: ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. Distant recurrence was the primary end point, and proportional hazards models were used with sample splitting to control for overfitting. A prognostic model that used classical variables and the four IHC markers (IHC4 score) was created and assessed in a separate cohort of 786 patients. All four IHC markers provided independent prognostic information in the presence of classical variables. In sample-splitting analyses, the information in the IHC4 score was found to be similar to that in the GHI-RS, and little additional prognostic value was seen in the combined use of both scores. The prognostic value of the IHC4 score was further validated in the second separate cohort. This study suggests that the amount of prognostic information contained in four widely performed IHC assays is similar to that in the GHI-RS. Additional studies are needed to determine the general applicability of the IHC4 score.
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            HER2 status and benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab in breast cancer.

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              Seven-year follow-up assessment of cardiac function in NSABP B-31, a randomized trial comparing doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (ACP) with ACP plus trastuzumab as adjuvant therapy for patients with node-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.

              Cardiac dysfunction (CD) is a recognized risk associated with the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer, especially when the treatment regimen includes anthracyclines. Given the demonstrated efficacy of trastuzumab, ongoing assessment of cardiac safety and identification of risk factors for CD are important for optimal patient care. In National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-31, a phase III adjuvant trial, 1,830 patients who met eligibility criteria for initiation of trastuzumab were evaluated for CD. Recovery from CD was also assessed. A statistical model was developed to estimate the risk of severe congestive heart failure (CHF). Baseline patient characteristics associated with anthracycline-related decline in cardiac function were also identified. At 7-year follow-up, 37 (4.0%) of 944 patients who received trastuzumab experienced a cardiac event (CE) versus 10 (1.3%) of 743 patients in the control arm. One cardiac-related death has occurred in each arm of the protocol. A Cardiac Risk Score, calculated using patient age and baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multiple-gated acquisition scan, statistically correlates with the risk of a CE. After stopping trastuzumab, the majority of patients who experienced CD recovered LVEF in the normal range, although some decline from baseline often persists. Only two CEs occurred more than 2 years after initiation of trastuzumab. The late development of CHF after the addition of trastuzumab to paclitaxel after doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide chemotherapy is uncommon. The risk versus benefit of trastuzumab as given in this regimen remains strongly in favor of trastuzumab.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
                Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                1543-2165
                0003-9985
                February 01 2014
                October 07 2013
                February 01 2014
                October 07 2013
                : 138
                : 2
                : 241-256
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Antonio C. Wolff, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore; Lisa M. McShane, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; M. Elizabeth H. Hammond, University of Utah School of Medicine and Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT; David G. Hicks, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY; Mitch Dowsett, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Kimberly H. All
                Article
                10.5858/arpa.2013-0953-SA
                4086638
                24099077
                a2095de3-2f2b-4cce-884d-db7888d6df2b
                © 2013

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