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      Desire for Birth Companionship Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Debremarkos City, Northwest Ethiopia: Magnitude and Associated Factors


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          Birth companionship is one of the components of the respectful maternity continuum of care recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Women's desire for birth companionship needs to be given attention during the antenatal care period to make them ready during labor and delivery. There is a dearth of study about the status of women's desire for birth companionship and associated factors.


          This study aimed to assess the prevalence of desire for birth companionship and associated factors among pregnant women in Debremarkos city, northwest Ethiopia.


          Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 1, 2021 to March 30, 2021 in Debremarkos city, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 423 participants were accessed by systematic random sampling. A face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed. The data were entered into Epi data version 4.6 and transformed to SPSS version 25. Binary logistic regression analysis was done, and variables with a p-value ≤ 0.2 on bivariable analysis were taken for multivariable analysis. Adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to detect the association, and a p-value of <0.05 in the multivariable analysis was used to declare statistical significance.


          The prevalence of desire for birth companionship was 57.45% (52.6–62.2%). Women who were the primary decision-maker for maternal health care services [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =3.0; 95% CI 1.7–5.6], women with planned pregnancy (AOR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–3.9), women who have no bad obstetric history (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2–4.4), and women whose 1st antenatal care visit starts within the second trimester (AOR = 2.6; 1.6–4.4) were statistically significant with desire on birth companionship.


          Desire of pregnant women for birth companionship was high in this study. Improving women's decision-making power, emphasis on the type of pregnancy, obstetrical history, and early initiation of antenatal care visit were the suggested areas to increase the desire of women for birth companionship.

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          Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia

          Introduction Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. Methods Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population. Results Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of delayed initiation of ANC visits (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.26–2.18). However, rural women had 44% reduction in the odds of having inadequate ANC visits. In addition, multi-parity showed higher odds of delayed initiation of ANC visit when compared to the primigravida (OR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.07–2.69). On the contrary, there was 36% reduction in the odds of multigravida having inadequate ANC visits when compared to the women who were primigravida. There were higher odds of inadequacy in ANC visits among women who engaged in sales/business, agriculture, skilled manual and other jobs when compared to women who currently do not work, after adjusting for covariates. From the predictive margins, assuming the distribution of all covariates remained the same among respondents, but everyone was aged 15–19 years, we would expect 71.8% delayed initiation of ANC visit. If everyone was aged 20-24years, 73.4%; 25-29years, 66.5%; 30-34years, 64.8%; 35-39years, 65.6%; 40-44years, 59.6% and 45-49years, we would expect 70.1% delayed initiation of ANC visit. If instead the distribution of age was as observed and for other covariates remained the same among respondents, but no respondent lived in the rural, we would expect about 61.4% delayed initiation of ANC visit; if however, everyone lived in the rural, and we would expect 71.6% delayed initiation in ANC visit. Model III revealed the predictive margins of all factors examined for delayed initiation for ANC visits, while Model IV presented the predictive marginal effects of the determinants of adequacy of ANC visits. Conclusion The precise mechanism by which these factors affect ANC visits remain blurred at best. There may be factors on the demand side like the women’s empowerment, financial support of the husband, knowledge of ANC visits in the context of timing, frequency and the expectations of ANC visits might be mediating the effects through the factors found associated in this study. Supply side factors like the quality of ANC services, skilled staff, and geographic location of the health centers also mediate their effects through the highlighted factors. Irrespective of the knowledge about the precise mechanism of action, policy makers could focus on improving women’s empowerment, improving women’s education, reducing wealth inequity and facilitating improved utilization of ANC through modifications on the supply side factors such as geographic location and focus on hard to reach women.
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            Women’s decision-making autonomy and utilisation of maternal healthcare services: results from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

            Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between women’s decision-making power and utilisation of maternal healthcare services (MHS) among Bangladeshi women. Settings This is a nationally representative survey that encompassed Dhaka, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Chittagong, Khulna, Barisal and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Sample households were selected by a two-stage stratification technique. First, 207 clusters in urban areas and 393 in rural areas were selected for 600 enumeration areas with proportional probability. In the second stage, on average 30 households were selected systematically from the enumeration areas. Finally, 17 989 households were selected for the survey of which 96% were interviewed successfully. Participants Cross-sectional data on 4309 non-pregnant women were collected from Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2014. Decision-making status on respondent's own healthcare, large household purchases, having a say on child’s healthcare and visiting to family or relatives were included in the analysis. Results Prevalence of at least four antenatal attendance, facility delivery and postnatal check-up were respectively 32.6% (95% CI 31.2 to 34), 40.6% (95% CI 39.13 to 42.07) and 66.3% (95% CI 64.89 to 67.71). Compared with women who could make decisions alone, women in the urban areas who had to decide on their healthcare with husband/partner had 20% (95% CI 0.794 to 1.799) higher odds of attending at least four antenatal visits and those in rural areas had 35% (95% CI 0.464 to 0.897) lower odds of attending at least four antenatal visits. Women in urban and rural areas had respectively 43% (95% CI 0.941 to 2.169) and 28% (95% CI 0.928 to 1.751) higher odds of receiving postnatal check-up when their health decisions were made jointly with their husband/partner. Conclusion Neither making decisions alone, nor deciding jointly with husband/partner was always positively associated with the utilisation of all three types of MHS. This study concludes that better spousal cooperation on household and health issues could lead to higher utilisation of MHS services.
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              Inequities in utilization of reproductive and maternal health services in Ethiopia

              Background Disparities in health services utilization within and between regional states of countries with diverse socio-cultural and economic conditions such as Ethiopia is a frequent encounter. Understanding and taking measures to address unnecessary and avoidable differences in the use of reproductive and maternal health services is a key concern in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to examine degree of equity in reproductive and maternal health services utilization in Ethiopia. Method Data from Ethiopia demographic health survey 2014 was analyzed. We assessed inequities in utilization of modern contraceptive methods, antenatal care, facility based delivery and postnatal checkup. Four standard equity measurement methods were used; equity gaps, rate-ratios, concertation curve and concentration index. Results Inequities in service utilization were exhibited favoring women in developed regions, urban residents, most educated and the wealthy. Antenatal care by skilled provider was three times higher among women with post-secondary education than mothers with no education. Women in the highest wealth quantile had about 12 times higher skilled birth attendance than those in lowest wealth quantile. The rate of postnatal care use among urban resident was about 6 times that of women in rural area. Use of modern contraceptive methods was more equitably utilized service while, birth at health facility was less equitable across all economic levels, favoring the wealthy. Conclusion Considerable inequity between and within regions of Ethiopia in the use of maternal health services was demonstrated. Strategically targeting social determinants of health with special emphasis to women education and economic empowerment will substantially contribute for altering the current situation favorably.

                Author and article information

                Front Glob Womens Health
                Front Glob Womens Health
                Front. Glob. Womens Health
                Frontiers in Global Women's Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 April 2022
                : 3
                : 823020
                [1] 1Department of Clinical Midwifery, School of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar , Gondar, Ethiopia
                [2] 2Department of Women's and Family Health, School of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar , Gondar, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Laura A. Magee, King's College London, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Rasha Dabash, Ipas, United States; Triphonie Nkurunziza, World Health Organization - Regional Office for Africa, Republic of Congo

                *Correspondence: Melaku Hunie Asratie melakhunie27@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Maternal Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Global Women's Health

                Copyright © 2022 Assfaw, Abuhay and Asratie.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 26 November 2021
                : 28 February 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Equations: 1, References: 53, Pages: 10, Words: 6846
                Global Women's Health
                Original Research

                antenatal care,companionship,debremarkos,desire,ethiopia
                antenatal care, companionship, debremarkos, desire, ethiopia


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