T.D. Müller 1 , 2 , 3 , ∗ , B. Finan 4 , S.R. Bloom 5 , D. D'Alessio 6 , D.J. Drucker 7 , P.R. Flatt 8 , A. Fritsche 2 , 9 , 10 , F. Gribble 11 , H.J. Grill 12 , J.F. Habener 13 , J.J. Holst 14 , W. Langhans 15 , J.J. Meier 16 , M.A. Nauck 17 , D. Perez-Tilve 18 , A. Pocai 19 , F. Reimann 11 , D.A. Sandoval 20 , T.W. Schwartz 21 , 22 , R.J. Seeley 20 , K. Stemmer 1 , 2 , M. Tang-Christensen 23 , S.C. Woods 24 , R.D. DiMarchi 4 , 25 , M.H. Tschöp 2 , 26 , 27
30 September 2019
The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a multifaceted hormone with broad pharmacological potential. Among the numerous metabolic effects of GLP-1 are the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion, decrease of gastric emptying, inhibition of food intake, increase of natriuresis and diuresis, and modulation of rodent β-cell proliferation. GLP-1 also has cardio- and neuroprotective effects, decreases inflammation and apoptosis, and has implications for learning and memory, reward behavior, and palatability. Biochemically modified for enhanced potency and sustained action, GLP-1 receptor agonists are successfully in clinical use for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, and several GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies are in clinical evaluation for the treatment of obesity.
In this review, we provide a detailed overview on the multifaceted nature of GLP-1 and its pharmacology and discuss its therapeutic implications on various diseases.
Since its discovery, GLP-1 has emerged as a pleiotropic hormone with a myriad of metabolic functions that go well beyond its classical identification as an incretin hormone. The numerous beneficial effects of GLP-1 render this hormone an interesting candidate for the development of pharmacotherapies to treat obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders