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      The genetic basis for the selection of dairy goats with enhanced resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes Translated title: Base génétique pour la sélection de chèvres laitières à résistance accrue aux nématodes gastrointestinaux

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          Abstract

          Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) severely affect small ruminant production worldwide. Increasing problems of anthelmintic resistance have given strong impetus to the search for alternative strategies to control GIN. Selection of animals with an enhanced resistance to GIN has been shown to be successful in sheep. In goats, the corresponding information is comparatively poor. Therefore, the present study was designed to provide reliable data on heritabilities of and genetic correlations between phenotypic traits linked to GIN and milk yield in two major dairy goat breeds (Alpine and Saanen). In all, 20 herds totalling 1303 goats were enrolled in the study. All herds had ( i) a history of gastrointestinal nematode infection, ( ii) uniform GIN exposure on pasture and ( iii) regular milk recordings. For all goats, individual recordings of faecal egg counts (FEC), FAMACHA © eye score, packed cell volume (PCV) and milk yield were performed twice a year with an anthelmintic treatment in between. The collected phenotypic data were multivariately modelled using animal as a random effect with its covariance structure inferred from the pedigree, enabling estimation of the heritabilities of the respective traits and the genetic correlation between them. The heritabilities of FEC, FAMACHA © and PCV were 0.07, 0.22 and 0.22, respectively. The genetic correlation between FEC and FAMACHA © was close to zero and −0.41 between FEC and PCV. The phenotypic correlation between FEC and milk yield was close to zero, whereas the genetic correlation was 0.49. Our data suggest low heritability of FEC in Saanen and Alpine goats and an unfavourable genetic correlation of FEC with milk yield.

          Translated abstract

          Les nématodes gastrointestinaux (NGI) ont un impact important sur la production des petits ruminants dans le monde entier. L’augmentation croissante des problèmes de résistance aux anthelminthiques a donné une forte impulsion à la recherche de stratégies alternatives pour contrôler les NGI. La sélection d’animaux ayant une meilleure résistance aux NGI s’est avérée efficace chez les brebis. Chez les chèvres, moins d’informations sont disponibles. Cette étude a donc été conçue pour fournir des données sur l’héritabilité et les corrélations génétiques entre les caractères phénotypiques liés aux NGI et à la production de lait chez deux races de chèvres laitières (Alpine et Saanen). Vingt troupeaux, totalisant 1303 chèvres ont été inclus dans l’étude. Tous les troupeaux avaient (i) des antécédents d’infestation aux nématodes gastrointestinaux, (ii) une exposition uniforme aux NGI sur pâture et (iii) des enregistrements réguliers de production laitière. Pour toutes les chèvres, des enregistrements individuels de nombres d’œufs fécaux (FEC), de FAMACHA et d’hématocrite ont été effectués deux fois par an avec un traitement anthelminthique intermédiaire. En incluant le pedigree des animaux, les données phénotypiques rassemblées ont été utilisées pour modéliser les héritabilités des traits respectifs et la corrélation génétique entre eux. Les héritabilités de FEC, FAMACHA et hématocrite étaient respectivement de 0.07, 0.22 et 0.22. La corrélation génétique entre FEC et FAMACHA était proche de zéro et de −0.41 entre FEC et hématocrite. La corrélation phénotypique entre la FEC et la production laitière était proche de zéro, tandis que la corrélation génétique était de 0.49. Nos données suggèrent une faible héritabilité de la FEC chez les chèvres Saanen et Alpine et une corrélation génétique défavorable entre FEC et production laitière.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Lack of efficacy of monepantel against Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

          After reports of the apparent failure of monepantel to reduce the egg counts of goats on a farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand, faecal egg count reduction tests were conducted in goats and lambs resident on the property, and a confirmatory, slaughter study was conducted using 12 sheep, sourced elsewhere, that were grazed on the farm for approximately 5 weeks. In the egg count reduction test in goats, 8 animals were given monepantel at 3.9 mg/kg (just over 1.5× the sheep dose rate of 2.5mg/kg), whilst four received 7.7 mg/kg (just over 3× the sheep dose). In the egg count reduction test in sheep, 15 lambs were treated with 3.0mg/kg of monepantel. For the confirmatory study, the sheep were housed indoors for 2 weeks before half were treated with 2.9 mg/kg monepantel and the animals were killed for worm counts 9 days later. There was no evidence of efficacy in either egg count reduction test, or in the goats, the two dose rates used appeared equally ineffective. Likewise, there were no significant reductions in egg counts or worm burdens in the slaughter study. Monepantel was ineffective against at least two gastrointestinal nematode species, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. These findings represent the first report from the field of resistance having developed to the anthelmintic monepantel with severe resistance developing in more than one species after being administered on 17 separate occasions to different stock classes and in less than 2 years of the product first being used on the farm in question. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Costs of the major endemic diseases of sheep in Great Britain and the potential benefits of reduction in disease impact

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              Nutrition-parasite interaction.

              The interactions between host nutrition and parasitism in ruminants are viewed within a framework that accounts for the allocation of scarce nutrient resources, such as energy and protein, between the various competing body functions of the host. These include functions that are the direct result of parasitism. Since it is proposed that the host gives priority to the reversal of the pathophysiological consequences of parasitism over other body functions, it is to be expected that improved nutrition will always lead to improved resilience. On the other hand, it is proposed that the function of growth, pregnancy and lactation are prioritised over the expression of immunity. Thus, improved nutrition may affect the degree of expression of immunity during these phases. The framework is useful at highlighting areas of future research on host/parasite/nutrition interactions. Its suggestions can account for the observations of the periparturient relaxation of immunity in reproducing females, as well as the reduction in worm burden in small ruminants supplemented with additional protein. Although developed for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants, the concepts of the framework should be applicable to the interactions of nutrition in other parasitic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2017
                09 August 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Research Institute for Organic Agriculture (FiBL) PO Box CH-5070 Frick Switzerland
                [2 ] Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization Demeter, Thermi 57001 Thessaloniki Greece
                [3 ] agn Genetics GmbH Börtjistrasse 8b 7260 Davos Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: felix.heckendorn@ 123456fibl.org
                Article
                parasite160118 10.1051/parasite/2017033
                10.1051/parasite/2017033
                5550108
                28792887
                © F. Heckendorn et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 2, References: 54, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article

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