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      Impact of Residual Renal Function on Volume Status in Chronic Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          During the past few years, it has become increasingly evident that residual renal function (RRF) is an important and independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the causes of this observation are not fully understood, it appears that the loss of RRF impairs both fluid removal and clearance of solutes, which in turn leads to uremic toxicity and increased morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence that patients with CKD develop signs of fluid overload already in the early phases of the disease, and this may be a stimulus for inflammatory activation. Recently, an inflammatory component was identified in uremic atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been consistently associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with CKD. Signs of systemic inflammation occur in parallel to the impairment in renal function, and the pathophysiology is most likely multifactorial, including a decrease in cytokine clearance, advanced glycation end-product accumulation, oxidative stress, and principal fluid overload. Additionally, inflammation seems to be a predictor of accelerated loss of renal function. In this article, we discuss the evidence showing that patients with CKD generally have fluid overload, the mechanisms by which impaired renal function may lead to a chronic inflammatory state, and the available information linking fluid overload to accelerated loss of renal function and CVD through inflammation. Inflammation may lead to the development of complications of CKD, in particular CVD, but on the other hand may also lead to a faster progression of renal disease. Strategies aiming to reduce fluid overload may be useful to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but also preserve RRF.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure.

          B-type natriuretic peptide is released from the cardiac ventricles in response to increased wall tension. We conducted a prospective study of 1586 patients who came to the emergency department with acute dyspnea and whose B-type natriuretic peptide was measured with a bedside assay. The clinical diagnosis of congestive heart failure was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists, who were blinded to the results of the B-type natriuretic peptide assay. The final diagnosis was dyspnea due to congestive heart failure in 744 patients (47 percent), dyspnea due to noncardiac causes in 72 patients with a history of left ventricular dysfunction (5 percent), and no finding of congestive heart failure in 770 patients (49 percent). B-type natriuretic peptide levels by themselves were more accurate than any historical or physical findings or laboratory values in identifying congestive heart failure as the cause of dyspnea. The diagnostic accuracy of B-type natriuretic peptide at a cutoff of 100 pg per milliliter was 83.4 percent. The negative predictive value of B-type natriuretic peptide at levels of less than 50 pg per milliliter was 96 percent. In multiple logistic-regression analysis, measurements of B-type natriuretic peptide added significant independent predictive power to other clinical variables in models predicting which patients had congestive heart failure. Used in conjunction with other clinical information, rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide is useful in establishing or excluding the diagnosis of congestive heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Natriuretic peptides.

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              The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia.

              Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have been found to have low predictive power, while markers of inflammation and malnutrition are highly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathophysiology of the disease process that links uremia, inflammation, and malnutrition with increased cardiovascular complications is not well understood. We hereby propose the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress and its sequalae is a major contributor to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found in uremia. This hypothesis is based on studies that conclusively demonstrate an increased oxidative burden in uremic patients, before and particularly after renal replacement therapies, as evidenced by higher concentrations of multiple biomarkers of oxidative stress. This hypothesis also provides a framework to explain the link that activated phagocytes provide between oxidative stress and inflammation (from infectious and non-infections causes) and the synergistic role that malnutrition (as reflected by low concentrations of albumin and/or antioxidants) contributes to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in uremia. We further propose that retained uremic solutes such as beta-2 microglobulin, advanced glycosylated end products (AGE), cysteine, and homocysteine, which are substrates for oxidative injury, further contribute to the pro-atherogenic milieu of uremia. Dialytic therapy, which acts to reduce the concentration of oxidized substrates, improves the redox balance. However, processes related to dialytic therapy, such as the prolonged use of catheters for vascular access and the use of bioincompatible dialysis membranes, can contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state and thus to a pro-atherogenic state. Anti-oxidative therapeutic strategies for patients with uremia are in their very early stages; nonetheless, early studies demonstrate the potential for significant efficacy in reducing cardiovascular complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2004
                May 2004
                09 July 2004
                : 22
                : 3
                : 285-292
                Affiliations
                aCentro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, and bRenal, Diabetes and Hypertension Research Center of ProRenal Foundation, Curitiba, Brazil; cDivisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                Article
                78699 Blood Purif 2004;22:285–292
                10.1159/000078699
                15166490
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 66, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/78699
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