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      Introducing a new measure for assessing self-efficacy in response to air pollution hazards for pregnant women

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          A self-efficacy instrument should be condition-specific. There are several instruments for measuring self-efficacy, but none are air pollution-specific. This study aimed to develop a self-efficacy measure for assessing pregnant women’s responses to air pollution hazards. A random sample of pregnant women aged between 18 and 35 years attending three prenatal care centers were entered into the study. Prenatal care centers randomly selected from a list of centers located in different geographical regions of Tehran, Iran. After careful consideration and performing content and face validity, a 4-item measure was developed and participants completed the questionnaire. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed by performing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and known group comparison. In all 200 eligible pregnant women were studied. The mean age of participants was 26.9 (SD = 4.8) years and it was 27.9 (SD = 9.1) weeks for gestational age. The findings showed almost perfect results for both content validity ratio (CVR = 1) and content validity index (CVI = 1). The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data, and known group comparison revealed satisfying results. Internal consistency as measured by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.74. In general, the findings suggest that this new generated scale is a reliable and valid specific measure of self-efficacy in response to air pollution hazards for pregnant women. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire.

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          Most cited references 32

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            Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations.

            Nurse researchers typically provide evidence of content validity for instruments by computing a content validity index (CVI), based on experts' ratings of item relevance. We compared the CVI to alternative indexes and concluded that the widely-used CVI has advantages with regard to ease of computation, understandability, focus on agreement of relevance rather than agreement per se, focus on consensus rather than consistency, and provision of both item and scale information. One weakness is its failure to adjust for chance agreement. We solved this by translating item-level CVIs (I-CVIs) into values of a modified kappa statistic. Our translation suggests that items with an I-CVI of .78 or higher for three or more experts could be considered evidence of good content validity.
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              What are the most effective intervention techniques for changing physical activity self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour--and are they the same?

              There is convincing evidence that targeting self-efficacy is an effective means of increasing physical activity. However, evidence concerning which are the most effective techniques for changing self-efficacy and thereby physical activity is lacking. The present review aims to estimate the association between specific intervention techniques used in physical activity interventions and change obtained in both self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour. A systematic search yielded 27 physical activity intervention studies for 'healthy' adults that reported self-efficacy and physical activity data. A small, yet significant (P < 0.01) effect of the interventions was found on change in self-efficacy and physical activity (d = 0.16 and 0.21, respectively). When a technique was associated with a change in effect sizes for self-efficacy, it also tended to be associated with a change (r(s) = 0.690, P < 0.001) in effect size for physical activity. Moderator analyses found that 'action planning', 'provide instruction' and 'reinforcing effort towards behaviour' were associated with significantly higher levels of both self-efficacy and physical activity. 'Relapse prevention' and 'setting graded tasks' were associated with significantly lower self-efficacy and physical activity levels. This meta-analysis provides evidence for which psychological techniques are most effective for changing self-efficacy and physical activity.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Biostatistics, Hospital Management Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Prochange Behavior System, West Kingston, USA
                [5 ]Department of Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [6 ]Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
                J Environ Health Sci Eng
                J Environ Health Sci Eng
                Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering
                BioMed Central
                8 July 2013
                : 11
                : 16
                Copyright ©2013 Araban et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


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