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      Safety and Tolerability of High-Dose Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Therapy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Study

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          Background: The progression of renal disease is ameliorated by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The doses used to slow the progression of renal disease may not completely suppress the RAS for 24 h and may explain why some patients do not obtain optimal renoprotective benefits from therapy. This pilot study was initiated to determine the safety and tolerability of using higher doses, than currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration, for the angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan cilexetil in patients with chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that higher doses will be safe and well tolerated. Consequently, this should be a viable strategy for larger clinical trials evaluating the preservation of renal function. Methods: Twelve patients (10 males; age = 57 ± 14 years) with a history of diabetic or non-diabetic chronic kidney disease were enrolled in an 8-week open-label trial. Patients received candesartan titrated to a targeted dosage of 160 mg/day (5 times above the currently approved maximum dose) and remained at that dosage for the subsequent 4 weeks. The safety and tolerability of the higher doses were determined by measures of blood pressure, serum creatinine and potassium. Results: Candesartan was well tolerated with no serious drug-related adverse events reported. Serum creatinine concentrations throughout the study were not different (p > 0.05) from baseline levels (2.0 ± 0.5 mg/dl). Plasma potassium concentrations at 160 mg/day candesartan (4.9 ± 0.7 mEq/l) were similar (p > 0.05) to those at baseline (4.8 ± 0.5 mEq/l). Conclusions: The results of this pilot study suggest that supramaximal doses of ARBs are safe and well tolerated in patients with chronic kidney disease, while reducing both blood pressure and proteinuria. This study demonstrates the need to further investigate the optimal dosing strategy for ARBs in reducing the progression of renal disease.

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          The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

           Ryan Andersen,  P Arner,   (2001)
          Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level. The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02). Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
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            Progression, remission, regression of chronic renal diseases.

            The prevalence of chronic renal disease is increasing worldwide. Most chronic nephropathies lack a specific treatment and progress relentlessly to end-stage renal disease. However, research in animals and people has helped our understanding of the mechanisms of this progression and has indicated possible preventive methods. The notion of renoprotection is developing into a combined approach to renal diseases, the main measures being pharmacological control of blood pressure and reduction of proteinuria. Lowering of blood lipids, smoking cessation, and tight glucose control for diabetes also form part of the multimodal protocol for management of renal patients. With available treatments, dialysis can be postponed for many patients with chronic nephropathies, but the real goal has to be less dialysis-in other words remission of disease and regression of structural damage to the kidney. Experimental and clinical data lend support to the notion that less dialysis (and maybe none for some patients) is at least possible.
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              Dual renin-angiotensin system blockade at optimal doses for proteinuria.

              The antiproteinuric effect of combining the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril and the angiotensin II (Ang II) antagonist losartan was compared to that of the optimal antiproteinuric doses of monotherapy. To this purpose, lisinopril and losartan were studied in 9 nondiabetic renal patients with median proteinuria 4.5 g/day (95% CI, 3.5, 6.4), creatinine clearance of 80 mL/min (95% CI, 66, 96), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 102 mm Hg (95% CI, 93, 112). First, in two protocols with six-week treatment periods per dose, the optimal antiproteinuric dose of each drug was established in each patient. Losartan and lisinopril were used in randomized order, each preceded by a baseline period without medication. The doses of losartan (mg/day) were 50, 100, 150, and again 50. The lisinopril doses were 10, 20, 40, and again 10. After the second protocol, patients were treated with a combination, using the optimal antiproteinuric doses established for the individual drugs. The antiproteinuric response by losartan was optimal at 100 mg (-46%; 95% CI, -60, -24%), being larger than at the 50 mg dose (-27%; 95% CI, -42, -4%, P < 0.05), but not different from the 150 mg dose (-46%; 95% CI, -58; -20%). Proteinuria decreased further at each up-titration step of lisinopril to -75% (95% CI, -85, -43%) at the 40 mg dose. Combination therapy reduced proteinuria more effectively (-85%; 95% CI, -96, -58) than monotherapy with losartan, and to a lesser extent than with lisinopril. Optimal blood pressure responses were obtained at similar doses. Dose-titration with a renin-angiotensin system blocker, followed by add-on therapy is highly effective in order to reduce proteinuria. The safety of this regimen needs to be addressed in future studies.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                June 2004
                06 July 2004
                : 24
                : 3
                : 340-345
                aCollege of Arts and Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Mass., bHypertension & Nephrology, Inc., Providence,R.I., cUniversity of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden, and dDivision of Nephrology, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston,Mass., USA
                78950 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:340–345
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 6
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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