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      Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration with or without Predilution Regional Citrate Anticoagulation: A Prospective Study

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          Background/Aims: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) requires anticoagulation to prevent circuit clotting and its use is contraindicated in patients with high bleeding risk. The aim of this study was to compare CVVH with and without regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) with respect to filter life, azotemic control and cost. Methods: This was a prospective sequential cohort study. The first cohort of patients with a high bleeding risk and acute renal failure was treated by anticoagulant-free predilution CVVH (n = 31). In the second cohort, CVVH was applied with RCA (n = 20). Results: The median filter life was 41 h (interquartile range 20–62) with RCA and 12 h (8–28) without RCA (p = 0.001). The azotemic control was better in the group with RCA. The hourly cost was comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regional anticoagulation with citrate-based replacement solution improved filter life compared to anticoagulant-free predilution CVVH. This regimen appeared safe, feasible and without metabolic complications or increased costs.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Citrate vs. heparin for anticoagulation in continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a prospective randomized study.

          To compare the efficacy and safety of adjusted-dose unfractionated heparin with that of regional citrate anticoagulation in intensive care patients treated by continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). Prospective, randomized, clinical trial in a 32-bed medical and surgical ICU in a university teaching hospital. ICU patients with acute renal failure requiring continuous renal replacement therapy, without cirrhosis, severe coagulopathy, or known sensitivity to heparin. Before the first CVVH run patients were randomized to receive anticoagulation with heparin or trisodium citrate. Patients eligible for another CVVH run received the other study medication in a cross-over fashion until the fourth circuit. Forty-nine circuits (hemofilters) were analyzed: 23 with heparin and 26 with citrate. The median lifetime of hemofilters was 70 h (interquartile range 44-140) with citrate anticoagulation and 40 h (17-48) with heparin (p=0.0007). One major bleeding occurred during heparin anticoagulation and one metabolic alkalosis (pH=7.60) was noted with citrate after a protocol violation. Transfusion rates (units of red cells per day of CVVH) were, respectively, 0.2 (0.0-0.4) with citrate and 1.0 (0.0-2.0) with heparin (p=0.0008). Regional citrate anticoagulation seems superior to heparin for the filter lifetime and transfusion requirements in ICU patients treated by continuous renal replacement therapy.
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            Citrate pharmacokinetics and metabolism in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic critically ill patients.

            To investigate pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sodium citrate in critically ill patients. To determine the risk of citrate accumulation in the setting of liver dysfunction (cirrhosis, hepatorenal syndrome). Prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital Vienna. Consecutive critically ill cirrhotic (n = 16) and noncirrhotic patients (n = 16). Infusion of sodium citrate (0.5 mmol.kg-1.hr-1) and calcium chloride (0.17 mmol.kg-1.hr-1) for 2 hrs. Analysis of serial arterial blood samples. Total body clearance of citrate was normal in noncirrhotic critically ill patients but significantly reduced in cirrhotic patients (710 vs. 340 mL/min, p =.008). Citrate peak concentrations and concentration over time were increased by 65% and 114% in cirrhotic patients (p <.001), respectively; volumes of distribution were similar. Net metabolic changes were quantitatively similar, with pH and plasma bicarbonate concentrations increasing more slowly in cirrhotic patients. No citrate-related side effects were noted. Citrate clearance could not be predicted by standard liver function tests and was not appreciably influenced by renal function and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. This first systematic study on citrate pharmacokinetics and metabolism in critically ill patients confirms a major role of hepatic citrate metabolism by demonstrating reduced citrate clearance in cirrhotic patients. Pharmacokinetic data could provide a basis for the clinical use of citrate anticoagulation in critically ill patients. Provided dose adaptation and monitoring of ionized calcium, citrate anticoagulation seems feasible even in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Metabolic consequences of citrate infusion were not different between groups in this study but may be more pronounced in prolonged infusion.
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              Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis in critically ill patients.


                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                September 2007
                14 August 2007
                : 25
                : 4
                : 316-323
                Departments of aNephrology and bIntensive Care, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                107045 Blood Purif 2007;25:316–323
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 27, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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