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      Physiological Actions and Clinical Applications of Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)

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      Growth Factors

      Informa UK Limited

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          Negative regulation of transforming growth factor-beta by the proteoglycan decorin.

          Decorin is a small chondroitin-dermatan sulphate proteoglycan consisting of a core protein and a single glycosaminoglycan chain. Eighty per cent of the core protein consists of 10 repeats of a leucin-rich sequence of 24 amino acids. Similar repeats have been found in two other proteoglycans, biglycan and fibromodulin, and in several other proteins including Drosophila morphogenetic proteins. Expression of high levels of decorin in Chinese hamster ovary cells has a dramatic effect on their morphology and growth properties. We now report that this effect is due at least in part to the ability of decorin to bind transforming growth factor-beta, an autocrine factor that stimulates the growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells. As transforming growth factor-beta induces synthesis of decorin in many cell types, our results suggest that decorin may be a component of a feedback system regulating cell growth.
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            Suppression of experimental glomerulonephritis by antiserum against transforming growth factor beta 1.

            Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix within the damaged glomeruli, impaired filtration and proteinuria. In its progressive form, the disease destroys kidney function leading to uraemia and death, unless dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation is available. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is incompletely understood, but the eliciting factor is thought often to be an immunological injury to mesangial and/or other resident cells in the glomeruli. We have used an animal model of acute mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis to show that this disease is associated with increased production and activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), an inducer of extracellular matrix production. Here we report that administration of anti-TGF-beta 1 at the time of induction of the glomerular disease suppresses the increased production of extracellular matrix and dramatically attenuates histological manifestations of the disease. These results provide direct evidence for a causal role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathogenesis of the experimental disease and suggest a new approach to the therapy of glomerulonephritis.
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              Transforming growth factor beta 1 is present at sites of extracellular matrix gene expression in human pulmonary fibrosis.

              Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an inexorably fatal disorder characterized by connective tissue deposition within the terminal air spaces resulting in loss of lung function and eventual respiratory failure. Previously, we demonstrated that foci of activated fibroblasts expressing high levels of fibronectin, procollagen, and smooth muscle actin and thus resembling those found in healing wounds are responsible for the connective tissue deposition and scarring in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we now demonstrate the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), a potent profibrotic cytokine, in the foci containing these activated fibroblasts. These results suggest that matrix-associated TGF-beta 1 may serve as a stimulus for the persistent expression of connective tissue genes. One potential source of the TGF-beta 1 is the alveolar macrophage, and we demonstrate the expression of abundant TGF-beta 1 mRNA in alveolar macrophages in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Growth Factors
                Growth Factors
                Informa UK Limited
                0897-7194
                1029-2292
                July 11 2009
                July 11 2009
                : 8
                : 1
                : 1-9
                Article
                10.3109/08977199309029129
                a267425b-8a1e-4e32-aa77-1d7dfa5d8c5c
                © 2009

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