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      Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis

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          Abstract

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the functional receptor for SARS‐CoV. Although ACE2 mRNA is known to be present in virtually all organs, its protein expression is largely unknown. Since identifying the possible route of infection has major implications for understanding the pathogenesis and future treatment strategies for SARS, the present study investigated the localization of ACE2 protein in various human organs (oral and nasal mucosa, nasopharynx, lung, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney, and brain). The most remarkable finding was the surface expression of ACE2 protein on lung alveolar epithelial cells and enterocytes of the small intestine. Furthermore, ACE2 was present in arterial and venous endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells in all organs studied. In conclusion, ACE2 is abundantly present in humans in the epithelia of the lung and small intestine, which might provide possible routes of entry for the SARS‐CoV. This epithelial expression, together with the presence of ACE2 in vascular endothelium, also provides a first step in understanding the pathogenesis of the main SARS disease manifestations. Copyright © 2004 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada.

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a condition of unknown cause that has recently been recognized in patients in Asia, North America, and Europe. This report summarizes the initial epidemiologic findings, clinical description, and diagnostic findings that followed the identification of SARS in Canada. SARS was first identified in Canada in early March 2003. We collected epidemiologic, clinical, and diagnostic data from each of the first 10 cases prospectively as they were identified. Specimens from all cases were sent to local, provincial, national, and international laboratories for studies to identify an etiologic agent. The patients ranged from 24 to 78 years old; 60 percent were men. Transmission occurred only after close contact. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (in 100 percent of cases) and malaise (in 70 percent), followed by nonproductive cough (in 100 percent) and dyspnea (in 80 percent) associated with infiltrates on chest radiography (in 100 percent). Lymphopenia (in 89 percent of those for whom data were available), elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (in 80 percent), elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels (in 78 percent), and elevated creatinine kinase levels (in 56 percent) were common. Empirical therapy most commonly included antibiotics, oseltamivir, and intravenous ribavirin. Mechanical ventilation was required in five patients. Three patients died, and five have had clinical improvement. The results of laboratory investigations were negative or not clinically significant except for the amplification of human metapneumovirus from respiratory specimens from five of nine patients and the isolation and amplification of a novel coronavirus from five of nine patients. In four cases both pathogens were isolated. SARS is a condition associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. It appears to be of viral origin, with patterns suggesting droplet or contact transmission. The role of human metapneumovirus, a novel coronavirus, or both requires further investigation. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Tissue and cellular tropism of the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome: an in‐situ hybridization study of fatal cases

            Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new human infectious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease has been shown to be associated with a new coronavirus (SARS‐CoV). The clinical and epidemiological aspects of SARS have been described. Moreover, the viral genome of SARS‐CoV has been fully sequenced. However, much of the biological behaviour of the virus is not known and data on the tissue and cellular tropism of SARS‐CoV are limited. In this study, six fatal cases of SARS were investigated for the tissue and cellular tropism of SARS‐CoV using an in‐situ hybridization (ISH) technique. Among all the tissues studied, positive signals were seen in pneumocytes in the lungs and surface enterocytes in the small bowel. Infected pneumocytes were further confirmed by immunofluorescence–fluorescence in‐situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. These results provide important information concerning the tissue tropism of SARS‐CoV, which is distinct from previously identified human coronaviruses, and suggest the possible involvement of novel receptors in this infection. Whereas the lung pathology was dominated by diffuse alveolar damage, the gut was relatively intact. These findings indicated that tissue responses to SARS‐CoV infection are distinct in different organs. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Hypothesis: ACE2 modulates blood pressure in the mammalian organism.

               C Yagil,  Y Yagil (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                w.timens@path.azg.nl
                Journal
                J Pathol
                J. Pathol
                10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9896
                PATH
                The Journal of Pathology
                John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Chichester, UK )
                0022-3417
                1096-9896
                07 May 2004
                June 2004
                : 203
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1002/path.v203:2 )
                : 631-637
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands
                [ 2 ]Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
                Article
                PATH1570
                10.1002/path.1570
                7167720
                15141377
                Copyright © 2004 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, References: 23, Pages: 7
                Product
                Categories
                Rapid Communication
                Rapid Communications
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                June 2004
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:15.04.2020

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