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      Role of Oral Factor Xa Inhibitors after Acute Coronary Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Despite an early invasive strategy and the use of dual antiplatelet therapy, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continue to be at substantial risk for recurrent ischemic events. It is believed that this risk is, at least in part, due to an intrinsic coagulation pathway that remains activated for a prolonged period after ACS. Earlier studies using warfarin showed a reduction in ischemic events, but the overall benefits were offset by increased bleeding complications. Recently, there has been increased interest in the potential role of new oral anticoagulants, some of which target factor Xa, after ACS. Factor Xa is important for the coagulation pathway and also plays a role in cellular proliferation and inflammation. It may thus be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in ACS. Recently, various oral factor Xa inhibitors have been studied as potential treatment options for ACS. This review will focus on currently available data to evaluate the possible role of factor Xa inhibitors in the management of patients with ACS.

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          Most cited references38

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          Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome.

          Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 15,526 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome to receive twice-daily doses of either 2.5 mg or 5 mg of rivaroxaban or placebo for a mean of 13 months and up to 31 months. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary efficacy end point, as compared with placebo, with respective rates of 8.9% and 10.7% (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.96; P=0.008), with significant improvement for both the twice-daily 2.5-mg dose (9.1% vs. 10.7%, P=0.02) and the twice-daily 5-mg dose (8.8% vs. 10.7%, P=0.03). The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose of rivaroxaban reduced the rates of death from cardiovascular causes (2.7% vs. 4.1%, P=0.002) and from any cause (2.9% vs. 4.5%, P=0.002), a survival benefit that was not seen with the twice-daily 5-mg dose. As compared with placebo, rivaroxaban increased the rates of major bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (2.1% vs. 0.6%, P<0.001) and intracranial hemorrhage (0.6% vs. 0.2%, P=0.009), without a significant increase in fatal bleeding (0.3% vs. 0.2%, P=0.66) or other adverse events. The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose resulted in fewer fatal bleeding events than the twice-daily 5-mg dose (0.1% vs. 0.4%, P=0.04). In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage but not the risk of fatal bleeding. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer Healthcare; ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00809965.).
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            Apixaban with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome.

            Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events. The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P=0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P=0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo. The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; APPRAISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00831441.).
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              Thrombosis and acute coronary-artery lesions in sudden cardiac ischemic death.

              The nature of the pathologic lesion in sudden cardiac ischemic death is in dispute. Among 100 subjects who died of ischemic heart disease in less than six hours, coronary thrombi were found in 74. There was no difference in incidence between those who died in less than 15 minutes, those who died in 15 to 60 minutes, and those who died after one hour. Among 26 cases without an intraluminal thrombus, plaque fissuring was found in 21; thus, in only 5 cases was no acute arterial lesion demonstrated. No intraluminal thrombi were found in age-matched controls. Forty-eight of the 74 thrombi were found at sites of preexisting high-grade stenosis; 14 were found at points of previous stenosis of less than 50 per cent of the diameter of the lumen. Forty-seven per cent of the thrombi were found in the right coronary artery. Only 30 per cent were found in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The pathologic process in sudden ischemic death involves a rapidly evolving coronary-artery lesion in which plaque fissuring and resultant thrombus formation are present. These findings have implications for the prevention of sudden cardiac death by antithrombotic therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                November 2014
                07 November 2014
                : 129
                : 4
                : 224-232
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine and bThe Howard Gilman Institute for Heart Valve Disease and the Schiavone Institute for Cardiovascular Translational Research, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, cDepartment of Medicine, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and dDepartment of Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, New York, N.Y., eDepartment of Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai Englewood Hospital and Medical Center Englewood, Englewood, N.J., fDepartment of Internal Medicine and gDivision of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, Valhalla, N.Y., hDepartment of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, La., iDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, La., jDivision of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., and kDivision of Cardiology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex., USA
                Author notes
                *Abhishek Sharma, MD, 240 78th Street Apt 2R, Brooklyn, NY 11209 (USA), E-Mail abhisheksharma4mamc@gmail.com
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4560-7346
                Article
                368747 Cardiology 2014;129:224-232
                10.1159/000368747
                25402219
                a27c2211-8f34-477f-b10d-1a2c6a8b48f6
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 16 September 2014
                : 26 September 2014
                Page count
                Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Turning Basic Research into Clinical Success

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Factor Xa,Acute coronary syndrome,Coagulation pathway

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