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      An injectable nanoparticle generator enhances delivery of cancer therapeutics

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          Abstract

          The efficacy of cancer drugs is often limited because only a small fraction of the administered dose accumulates in tumors. Here we report an injectable nanoparticle generator (iNPG) that overcomes multiple biological barriers to cancer drug delivery. The iNPG is a discoidal micrometer-sized particle that can be loaded with chemotherapeutics. We conjugate doxorubicin to poly(L-glutamic acid) by means of a pH-sensitive cleavable linker, and load the polymeric drug (pDox) into iNPG to assemble iNPG-pDox. Once released from iNPG, pDox spontaneously forms nanometer-sized particles in aqueous solution. Intravenously injected iNPG-pDox accumulates at tumors due to natural tropism and enhanced vascular dynamics and releases pDox nanoparticles that are internalized by tumor cells. Intracellularly, pDox nanoparticles are transported to the perinuclear region and cleaved into Dox, thereby avoiding excretion by drug efflux pumps. Compared to its individual components or current therapeutic formulations, iNPG-pDox shows enhanced efficacy in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 mouse models of metastatic breast cancer, including functional cures in 40-50% of treated mice.

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          Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy.

          Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and therapy. Advances in protein engineering and materials science have contributed to novel nanoscale targeting approaches that may bring new hope to cancer patients. Several therapeutic nanocarriers have been approved for clinical use. However, to date, there are only a few clinically approved nanocarriers that incorporate molecules to selectively bind and target cancer cells. This review examines some of the approved formulations and discusses the challenges in translating basic research to the clinic. We detail the arsenal of nanocarriers and molecules available for selective tumour targeting, and emphasize the challenges in cancer treatment.
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            Multidrug resistance in cancer: role of ATP-dependent transporters.

            Chemotherapeutics are the most effective treatment for metastatic tumours. However, the ability of cancer cells to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs--a trait known as multidrug resistance--remains a significant impediment to successful chemotherapy. Three decades of multidrug-resistance research have identified a myriad of ways in which cancer cells can elude chemotherapy, and it has become apparent that resistance exists against every effective drug, even our newest agents. Therefore, the ability to predict and circumvent drug resistance is likely to improve chemotherapy.
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              Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to lung.

              By means of in vivo selection, transcriptomic analysis, functional verification and clinical validation, here we identify a set of genes that marks and mediates breast cancer metastasis to the lungs. Some of these genes serve dual functions, providing growth advantages both in the primary tumour and in the lung microenvironment. Others contribute to aggressive growth selectively in the lung. Many encode extracellular proteins and are of previously unknown relevance to cancer metastasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Biotechnology
                Nat Biotechnol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1087-0156
                1546-1696
                April 2016
                March 14 2016
                April 2016
                : 34
                : 4
                : 414-418
                Article
                10.1038/nbt.3506
                26974511
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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