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      Reproducibility of Serum Leptin, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-3 Measurements

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          Background: Many epidemiologic studies examine the effects of single measurements of hormones, including those related to obesity such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) or leptin, on disease associations; however, few studies have determined whether these single values accurately reflect measurements over time. Methods: We examined the reproducibility of hormones associated with obesity, specifically leptin, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Two fasting blood samples, approximately four months apart, were collected from 38 participants from the Seattle metropolitan area; leptin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in previously unthawed serum samples. Unadjusted and adjusted intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess reproducibility. Results: Adjusting for age and sex, the ICCs for leptin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were 0.73, 0.83 and 0.60, respectively. Weighted kappas yielded similar results. Conclusion: These data suggest that for leptin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3, a single fasting serum measurement can fairly reliably reflect the hormonal milieu over periods of months.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study.

          Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a mitogen for prostate epithelial cells. To investigate associations between plasma IGF levels and prostate cancer risk, a nested case-control study within the Physicians' Health Study was conducted on prospectively collected plasma from 152 cases and 152 controls. A strong positive association was observed between IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk. Men in the highest quartile of IGF-I levels had a relative risk of 4.3 (95 percent confidence interval 1.8 to 10.6) compared with men in the lowest quartile. This association was independent of baseline prostate-specific antigen levels. Identification of plasma IGF-I as a predictor of prostate cancer risk may have implications for risk reduction and treatment.
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            Leptin and hyperleptinemia - from friend to foe for cardiovascular function.

             W. J. Ren (2004)
            The obese gene product, leptin, plays a central role in food intake and energy metabolism. The physiological roles of leptin in human bodily function have been broadened over the past decade since leptin was first discovered in 1994. Evidence has suggested that leptin plays a specific role in the intricate cascade of cardiovascular events, in addition to its well-established metabolic effects. Leptin, a hormone linking adiposity and central nervous circuits to reduce appetite and enhance energy expenditure, has been shown to increase overall sympathetic nerve activity, facilitate glucose utilization and improve insulin sensitivity. In addition, leptin is capable of regulating cardiac and vascular contractility through a local nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. However, elevated plasma leptin levels or hyperleptinemia, have been demonstrated to correlate with hyperphagia, insulin resistance and other markers of the metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, independent of total adiposity. Elevated plasma leptin levels may be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Although mechanisms leading to hyperleptinemia have not been well described, factors such as increased food intake and insulin resistance have been shown to rapidly enhance plasma leptin levels and subsequently tissue leptin resistance. These findings have prompted the speculation that leptin in the physiological range may serve as a physiological regulator of cardiovascular function whereas elevated plasma leptin levels may act as a pathophysiological trigger and/or marker for cardiovascular diseases due to tissue leptin resistance.
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              Nutrition, insulin, insulin-like growth factors and cancer.

               E Giovannucci (2015)
              The incidence of colon, pancreatic, and kidney cancers, as well as aggressive prostate cancer in men, and breast and endometrial cancer in women is invariably high in Western countries. Nutritional and related factors have been typically implicated. This review presents a model integrating nutrition, insulin and IGF-1 physiology ("bioactive" IGF-1), and carcinogenesis based on the following: (1) insulin and the IGF-1 axis function in an integrated fashion to promote cell growth and survival; (2) chronic exposure to these growth properties enhances carcinogenesis; (3) factors that influence bioactive IGF-1 will affect cancer risk. The model presented here summarizes the data that chronic exposure to high levels of insulin and IGF-1 may mediate many of the risk factors for some cancers that are high in Western populations. This hypothesis may help explain some of the epidemiologic patterns observed for these cancers, both from a cross-national perspective and within populations. Of particular importance is that some of relevant factors are modifiable through nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Out of a variety of perspectives presented, nutritional manipulation through the insulin pathway may be more feasible than attempting to influence total IGF-1 concentrations, which are determined largely by growth hormone. Further study is required to test these conclusions.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                May 2008
                06 February 2008
                : 69
                : 5
                : 295-300
                aCancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and bDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA
                114861 Horm Res 2008;69:295–300
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 19, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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