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      Influence of Smoking on Serum and Milk of Mothers, and Their Infants’ Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Levels

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          Objective: To investigate the serum and milk in active-smoking and nonsmoking mothers, and their infants’ insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Design and Setting: A cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center. Subjects: Forty-four mothers (age range: 21–34 years) and their newborns (7 days old) were enrolled in the study. Mothers were interviewed and classified according to their smoking status into one of two groups: the active-smoking mothers (n = 21) and the nonsmoking mothers (n = 23). Results: There was no difference noted in either IGF-I, IGFBP-3 or IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratios in serum and milk of mothers, and their infants’ serum samples according to maternal smoking. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that maternal smoking (5–10 cigarettes/day) did not influence the maternal and infant serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 as well as the breast milk levels of these peptides.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and lung cancer risk: a case-control analysis.

          Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), in particular IGF-I and IGF-II, strongly stimulate the proliferation of a variety of cancer cells, including those from lung cancer. To examine the possible causal role of IGFs in lung cancer development, we compared plasma levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, and an IGF-binding protein (IGFBP-3) in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and in control subjects. From an ongoing hospital-based, case-control study, we selected 204 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed, primary lung cancer and 218 control subjects who were matched to the case patients by age, sex, race, and smoking status. IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 plasma levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and then divided into quartiles, based on their distribution in the control subjects. Associations between the IGF variables and lung cancer risk were estimated by use of odds ratios (ORs). Reported P values are two-sided. IGF and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated (all r>.27; all P<.001). High plasma levels of IGF-I were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-3.56; P = .01), and this association was dose dependent in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Plasma IGFBP-3 showed no association with lung cancer risk unless adjusted for IGF-I level; when both of these variables were analyzed together, high plasma levels of IGFBP-3 were associated with reduced risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.25-0.92; P = .03). IGF-II was not associated with lung cancer risk. Plasma levels of IGF-I are higher and plasma levels of IGFBP-3 are lower in patients with lung cancer than in control subjects. If these findings can be confirmed in prospective studies, measuring levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in blood may prove useful in assessing lung cancer risk.
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            Nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factors

             J. Thissen (1994)
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              Insulin-like growth factor I and leptin in umbilical cord plasma and infant birth size at term.

              To determine the independent contributions to infant birth size of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and leptin measured in umbilical cord plasma. Umbilical cord blood was collected in 12 804 consecutive deliveries, and cord plasma from 585 singleton infants born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies was analyzed for leptin, IGF-I, and 2 IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3). In multivariable analyses, we assessed maternal and infant covariates of leptin and IGF-I, and we evaluated the independent contribution of cord levels of leptin and IGF-I on infant birth size. Cord plasma levels of IGF-I were lower in women who reported smoking at the beginning of pregnancy compared with nonsmokers. In female infants, levels of IGF-I and leptin were higher than in male infants after adjustment for ponderal index and maternal factors. We found a strong parallel increase in umbilical IGF-I and leptin with increasing birth weight and birth length. For IGFBP-1, there was an opposite pattern: IGFBP-1 increased with decreasing birth size. The multivariable analysis, adjusted for length of gestation and maternal age, parity, prepregnancy weight, smoking during pregnancy, and offspring sex, showed that IGF-I and leptin, independent of each other, were associated with birth weight and birth length. Levels of IGF-I and leptin in umbilical cord plasma were higher in girls than in boys, but in both sexes, these 2 factors contributed independently and positively to birth weight and length. For IGFBP-1, high levels were associated with low birth weight and reduced length. If intrauterine growth is related to the risk of developing adult diseases, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and leptin may be involved in the underlying processes.1131-1135 insulin like growth factors, leptin, umbilical cord plasma, birth weight.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                December 2004
                17 December 2004
                : 62
                : 6
                : 288-292
                aDivision of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, and bDepartment of Biochemistry, Nenehatun Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital, Erzurum, and cDepartment of Biochemistry and dDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
                81974 Horm Res 2004;62:288–292
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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