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      Functional physiological phenotyping and transcriptome analysis provide new insight into strawberry growth and water consumption


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          Global warming is expected to increase agricultural water scarcity; thus, optimized irrigation schedules are important and timely for sustainable crop production. Deficit irrigation, which balances crop growth and water consumption, has been proposed, but the critical threshold is not easily quantified. Here, we conducted experiments on strawberry plants subjecting progressive drought following various water recovery treatments on the high-throughput physiological phenotyping system “Plantarray”. The critical soil water contents (θ cri), below which the plant transpiration significantly decreased, were calculated from the inflection point of the transpiration rate (Tr) - volumetric soil water content (VWC) curve fitted by a piecewise function. The physiological traits of water relations were compared between the well-watered plants (CK), plants subjecting the treatment of rewatering at the point of θ cri following progressive drought (WR_θ cri), and the plants subjecting the treatment of rewatering at severe drought following progressive drought (WR_SD). The results showed that midday Tr, daily transpiration (E), and biomass gain of the plants under WR_θ cri treatment were equivalent to CK during the whole course of the experiment, but those under WR_SD treatment were significantly lower than CK during the water stress phase that could not recover even after rehydration. To explore the gene regulatory mechanisms, transcriptome analysis of the samples collected 12 h before, 12 h post and 36 h post water recovery in the three treatments was conducted. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses for the differentially expressed genes indicated that genes involved in mineral absorption and flavonoid biosynthesis were among the most striking transcriptionally reversible genes under the WR_θ cri treatment. Functional physiological phenotyping and transcriptome data provide new insight into a potential, quantitative, and balanceable water-saving strategy for strawberry irrigation and other agricultural crops.

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          Most cited references40

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          agriGO v2.0: a GO analysis toolkit for the agricultural community, 2017 update

          Abstract The agriGO platform, which has been serving the scientific community for >10 years, specifically focuses on gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses of plant and agricultural species. We continuously maintain and update the databases and accommodate the various requests of our global users. Here, we present our updated agriGO that has a largely expanded number of supporting species (394) and datatypes (865). In addition, a larger number of species have been classified into groups covering crops, vegetables, fish, birds and insects closely related to the agricultural community. We further improved the computational efficiency, including the batch analysis and P-value distribution (PVD), and the user-friendliness of the web pages. More visualization features were added to the platform, including SEACOMPARE (cross comparison of singular enrichment analysis), direct acyclic graph (DAG) and Scatter Plots, which can be merged by choosing any significant GO term. The updated platform agriGO v2.0 is now publicly accessible at http://systemsbiology.cau.edu.cn/agriGOv2/.
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            KAAS: an automatic genome annotation and pathway reconstruction server

            The number of complete and draft genomes is rapidly growing in recent years, and it has become increasingly important to automate the identification of functional properties and biological roles of genes in these genomes. In the KEGG database, genes in complete genomes are annotated with the KEGG orthology (KO) identifiers, or the K numbers, based on the best hit information using Smith–Waterman scores as well as by the manual curation. Each K number represents an ortholog group of genes, and it is directly linked to an object in the KEGG pathway map or the BRITE functional hierarchy. Here, we have developed a web-based server called KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Server: http://www.genome.jp/kegg/kaas/) i.e. an implementation of a rapid method to automatically assign K numbers to genes in the genome, enabling reconstruction of KEGG pathways and BRITE hierarchies. The method is based on sequence similarities, bi-directional best hit information and some heuristics, and has achieved a high degree of accuracy when compared with the manually curated KEGG GENES database.
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              Expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of flavonoid in wheat leaves in response to drought stress.

              Flavonoids are the low molecular weight polyphenolic secondary metabolic compounds, and have various functions in growth, development, reproduction, and stress defense. However, little is known about the roles of the key enzymes in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway in response to drought stress in winter wheat. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of flavonoids biosynthesis genes and accumulation of flavonoids in wheat leaves under drought stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that there were a rapid increase in expression levels of TaCHS, TaCHI, TaF3H, TaFNS, TaFLS, TaDFR, and TaANS under drought stress in two wheat cultivars Aikang 58 (AK) and Chinese Spring (CS). The cultivar CS exhibited higher genes expression levels of TaCHS, TaCHI, TaF3H, TaFLS, TaDFR, and TaANS, and the cultivar AK showed a higher expression level of TaFNS gene during drought treatment. The increase rates of genes expression were superior in AK compared to CS. Total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, anthocyanin content, and schaftoside content in wheat leaves were enhanced during drought treatment and cultivar CS had a relative higher accumulation. These results suggest that the flavonoids pathway genes expression and accumulation of flavonoids compounds may be closely related to drought tolerant in wheat. Further, flavonoids response mechanism may be different between wheat cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 November 2022
                : 13
                : 1074132
                [1] 1 Shandong Institute of Pomology , Taian, Shandong, China
                [2] 2 Key Laboratory of Specialty Agri-product Quality and Hazard Controlling Technology of Zhejiang Province, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University , Hangzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Tianlun Zhao, Zhejiang University, China

                Reviewed by: Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Wenguang Wu, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, China; Da Li, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

                *Correspondence: Chong Wu, WuchongSDIP@ 123456outlook.com

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Plant Abiotic Stress, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2022 Jiang, Sun, Wang, Zong and Wu

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 19 October 2022
                : 09 November 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Equations: 1, References: 40, Pages: 13, Words: 7162
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                strawberry,irrigation,critical soil water content,balance,growth,phenotyping
                Plant science & Botany
                strawberry, irrigation, critical soil water content, balance, growth, phenotyping


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