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      Soluble CD40 Ligand as a Predictor of Coronary Artery Disease and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Stable Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

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          Abstract

          Background: In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), elevated levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. We evaluated sCD40L levels and future cardiovascular events in patients not experiencing ACS. Methods: Serum sCD40L levels were measured in 909 patients undergoing angiography. A three-way matching scheme (age, gender and catheterization time period) identified 303 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who experienced a cardiac event within 1 year (CAD/event), 303 patients with CAD free of events (CAD/no event) and 303 patients without CAD and free of events (no CAD). Results: Average age was 64 ± 11 years; 74% were males. Median (± SE) sCD40L levels were higher for no CAD patients (335 ± 60 pg/ml) compared to CAD (248 ± 65 pg/ml, p = 0.01) and to CAD/event (233 ± 63 pg/ml, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in median sCD40L levels between CAD/no event and CAD/event patients. Higher sCD40L quartiles were associated with a significant decrease in the risk of CAD/event versus no CAD (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend towards a decreased risk of CAD as compared to no CAD, and for CAD/event versus CAD. Conclusions: In non-ACS patients, higher sCD40L levels were associated with a decreased risk of CAD. This novel interaction of sCD40L raises interesting questions for CAD pathogenesis.

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          Most cited references 17

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          CD40 ligand on activated platelets triggers an inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells.

          CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), a transmembrane protein structurally related to the cytokine TNF-alpha, was originally identified on stimulated CD4+ T cells, and later on stimulated mast cells and basophils. Interaction of CD40L on T cells with CD40 on B cells is of paramount importance for the development and function of the humoral immune system. CD40 is not only constitutively present on B cells, but it is also found on monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, suggesting that CD40L has a broader function in vivo. We now report that platelets express CD40L within seconds of activation in vitro and in the process of thrombus formation in vivo. Like TNF-alpha and interleukin-1, CD40L on platelets induces endothelial cells to secrete chemokines and to express adhesion molecules, thereby generating signals for the recruitment and extravasation of leukocytes at the site of injury. Our results indicate that platelets are not only involved in haemostasis but that they also directly initiate an inflammatory response of the vessel wall.
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            Circulating activated platelets exacerbate atherosclerosis in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E.

            We studied whether circulating activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates cause the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein-E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice. Circulating activated platelets bound to leukocytes, preferentially monocytes, to form platelet-monocyte/leukocyte aggregates. Activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates interacted with atherosclerotic lesions. The interactions of activated platelets with monocytes and atherosclerotic arteries led to delivery of the platelet-derived chemokines CCL5 (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, RANTES) and CXCL4 (platelet factor 4) to the monocyte surface and endothelium of atherosclerotic arteries. The presence of activated platelets promoted leukocyte binding of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and increased their adhesiveness to inflamed or atherosclerotic endothelium. Injection of activated wild-type, but not P-selectin-deficient, platelets increased monocyte arrest on the surface of atherosclerotic lesions and the size of atherosclerotic lesions in Apoe(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that circulating activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte/monocyte aggregates promote formation of atherosclerotic lesions. This role of activated platelets in atherosclerosis is attributed to platelet P-selectin-mediated delivery of platelet-derived proinflammatory factors to monocytes/leukocytes and the vessel wall.
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              Reduction of atherosclerosis in mice by inhibition of CD40 signalling.

              Increasing amounts of evidence support the involvement of inflammation and immunity in atherogenesis, but mediators of communication between the major cell types in atherosclerotic plaques are poorly defined. Cells in human atherosclerotic lesions express the immune mediator CD40 and its ligand CD40L (also known as CD154 or gp39). The interaction of CD40 with CD40L figures prominently in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. CD40L-positive T cells accumulate in atheroma, and, by virtue of their early appearance, persistence and localization at sites of lesion growth and complication, activated T cells may coordinate important aspects of atherogenesis. Interruption of CD40L-CD40 signalling by administration of an anti-CD40L antibody limits experimental autoimmune diseases such as collagen-induced arthritis, lupus nephritis, acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, multiple sclerosis and thyroiditis. Ligation of CD40 on atheroma-associated cells in vitro activates functions related to atherogenesis, including induction of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, adhesion molecules and tissue factor. However, the role of CD40 signalling in atherogenesis in vivo remains unknown. Here we determine whether interruption of CD40 signalling influences atherogenesis in vivo in hyperlipidaemic mice. Treatment with antibody against mouse CD40L limited atherosclerosis in mice lacking the receptor for low-density lipoprotein that had been fed a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. This antibody reduces the size of aortic atherosclerotic lesions by 59% and their lipid content by 79%. Furthermore, atheroma of mice treated with anti-CD40L antibody contained significantly fewer macrophages (64%) and T lymphocytes (70%), and exhibited decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These data support the involvement of inflammatory pathways in atherosclerosis and indicate a role for CD40 signalling during atherogenesis in hyperlipidaemic mice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                February 2008
                27 August 2007
                : 109
                : 3
                : 196-201
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine and bCardiovascular Department, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
                Article
                106683 PMC3245966 Cardiology 2008;109:196–201
                10.1159/000106683
                PMC3245966
                17726321
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 22, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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