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      Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Fetal Programming - Lessons Learned from Humans and Mice

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          Background/Aims: Cardiovascular disease partially originates from poor environmental and nutritional conditions in early life. Lack of micronutrients like 25 hydroxy vitamin D<sub>3</sub> (25OHD) during pregnancy may be an important treatable causal factor. The present study explored the effect of maternal 25OHD deficiency on the offspring. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study analyzing the association of maternal 25OHD deficiency during pregnancy with birth outcomes considering confounding. To show that vitamin D deficiency may be causally involved in the observed associations, mice were set on either 25OHD sufficient or insufficient diets before and during pregnancy. Growth, glucose tolerance and mortality was analyzed in the F1 generation. Results: The clinical study showed that severe 25OHD deficiency was associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. ANCOVA models indicated that established confounding factors such as offspring sex, smoking during pregnancy and maternal BMI did not influence the impact of 25OHD on birth weight. However, there was a significant interaction between 25OHD and gestational age. Maternal 25OHD deficiency was also independently associated with low APGAR scores 5 minutes postpartum. The offspring of 25OHD deficient mice grew slower after birth, had an impaired glucose tolerance shortly after birth and an increased mortality during follow-up. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates an association between maternal 25OHD and offspring birth weight. The effect of 25OHD on birth weight seems to be mediated by vitamin D controlling gestational age. Results from an animal experiment suggest that gestational 25OHD insufficiency is causally linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Since birth weight and prematurity are associated with an adverse cardiovascular outcome in later life, this study emphasizes the need for novel monitoring and treatment guidelines of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy.

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          Estimation of Average Concentration in the Presence of Nondetectable Values

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            Baseline Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Is Predictive of Future Glycemic Status and Insulin Resistance

            OBJECTIVE—Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests that hypovitaminosis D may be associated with type 2 diabetes and related metabolic risks. However, prospective data using the biomarker serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are limited and therefore examined in the present study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 524 randomly selected nondiabetic men and women, aged 40–69 years at baseline, with measurements for serum 25(OH)D and IGF-1 in the population-based Ely Study, had glycemic status (oral glucose tolerance), lipids, insulin, anthropometry, and blood pressure measured and metabolic syndrome risk (metabolic syndrome z score) derived at baseline and at 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS—Age-adjusted baseline mean serum 25(OH)D was greater in men (64.5 nmol/l [95% CI 61.2–67.9]) than women (57.2 nmol/l [54.4,60.0]) and varied with season (highest late summer). Baseline 25(OH)D was associated inversely with 10-year risk of hyperglycemia (fasting glucose: β = −0.0023, P = 0.019; 2-h glucose: β = −0.0097, P = 0.006), insulin resistance (fasting insulin β = −0.1467, P = 0.010; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]: β = −0.0059, P = 0.005), and metabolic syndrome z score (β = −0.0016, P = 0.048) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, BMI, season, and baseline value of each metabolic outcome variable. Associations with 2-h glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR remained significant after further adjustment for IGF-1, parathyroid hormone, calcium, physical activity, and social class. CONCLUSIONS—This prospective study reports inverse associations between baseline serum 25(OH)D and future glycemia and insulin resistance. These associations are potentially important in understanding the etiology of abnormal glucose metabolism and warrant investigation in larger, specifically designed prospective studies and randomized controlled trials of supplementation.
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              Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes.

              To investigate whether exposure to high maternal concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D in pregnancy poses any risk to the child. Prospective study. Princess Anne Maternity Hospital, Southampton, UK. A group of 596 pregnant women were recruited. A total of 466 (78%) children were examined at birth, 440 (74%) at age 9 months and 178 (30%) at age 9 years. Maternal 25 (OH)-vitamin D concentrations were measured in late pregnancy. Anthropometry of the child was recorded at birth, 9 months and 9 years. At 9 months, atopic eczema was assessed. At 9 years, children had an echocardiogram and a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, blood pressure, arterial compliance and carotid intima-media thickness were measured and intelligence and psychological function assessed. There were no associations between maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations and the child's body size or measures of the child's intelligence, psychological health or cardiovascular system. Children whose mothers had a 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration in pregnancy >75 nmol/l had an increased risk of eczema on examination at 9 months (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.15-9.29, P=0.025) and asthma at age 9 years (OR 5.40, 95% CI, 1.09-26.65, P=0.038) compared to children whose mothers had a concentration of <30 nmol/l. Exposure to maternal concentrations of 25(OH)-vitamin D in pregnancy in excess of 75 nmol/l does not appear to influence the child's intelligence, psychological health or cardiovascular system; there could be an increased risk of atopic disorders, but this needs confirmation in other studies.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2014
                19 September 2014
                : 39
                : 4
                : 315-329
                aInstitute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Rehbrücke; bDepartment of Physiology, University of Tübingen; cDepartment of Nephrology, Campus Mitte, Charité, Berlin, Germany; dDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Medical college of Hunan Normal University, Changsha; eDepartment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University of Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Prof. Dr. Berthold Hocher, University of Potsdam; Institute of Nutritional Science; Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116;, 14558 Nuthetal, Potsdam (Germany) Tel. +39 33200/88-5508, Fax +39 33200/88-5541,, E-Mail hocher@uni-potsdam.de, Homepage: http://www.uni-potsdam.de/eem
                355809 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:315-329
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Original Paper


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