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      Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women.

      The American Journal of Cardiology

      Abdomen, anatomy & histology, Adipose Tissue, Adult, Anthropometry, Body Constitution, Body Mass Index, Cardiovascular Diseases, epidemiology, Female, Glucose Tolerance Test, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Sex Characteristics, Statistics as Topic, Viscera

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          Abstract

          The amount of abdominal visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography is a critical correlate of the potentially "atherogenic" metabolic disturbances associated with abdominal obesity. In this study conducted in samples of 81 men and 70 women, data are presented on the anthropometric correlates of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular disease risk factors (triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, fasting and postglucose insulin and glucose levels). Results indicate that the waist circumference and the abdominal sagittal diameter are better correlates of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation than the commonly used waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). In women, the waist circumference and the abdominal sagittal diameter also appeared more closely related to the metabolic variables than the WHR. When the samples were divided into quintiles of waist circumference, WHR or abdominal sagittal diameter, it was noted that increasing values of waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter were more consistently associated with increases in fasting and postglucose insulin levels than increasing values of WHR, especially in women. These findings suggest that the waist circumference or the abdominal sagittal diameter, rather than the WHR, should be used as indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue deposition and in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. It is suggested from these data that waist circumference values above approximately 100 cm, or abdominal sagittal diameter values > 25 cm are most likely to be associated with potentially "atherogenic" metabolic disturbances.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum.

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            Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution.

            The distribution of adipose tissue thickness, fat cell weight (FCW), and number (FCN) were studied in four regions in randomly selected middle-aged men and women and in 930 obese individuals. Both the obese and the randomly selected men were found to have the largest adipose tissue thickness in the abdominal region. Women, however, showed a relative preponderance for the gluteal and femoral regions. FCW increased with expanding body fat up to a maximal size of approximately 0.7-0.8 micrograms/cell in each region. After this increase in FCW, a more rapid increase in FCN was found. For the same degree of relative overweight, men had higher triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin levels; higher sums of glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test; and higher blood pressure. Furthermore, elevated fasting glucose levels (greater than 7.4 mM) occurred twice as often in the males. These differences between males and females persisted even after body fat matching. A male risk profile was seen in women characterized by abdominal obesity (high waist/hip circumference ratio) as compared to women with the typical peripheral obesity. Stepwise multiple regression analyses in both women and men showed the obesity complications to be associated in a first step to waist/hip circumference or body fat and in a second to abdominal fat cell size. It may thus be concluded that: (a) In both obese and nonobese subjects, regional differences exist between the sexes with regard to adipose tissue distribution. (b) Moderate expansion of body fat is mainly due to FCW enlargement, which is subsequently followed by increased FCN. (c) Men and women with a male abdominal type of obesity are more susceptible to the effect of excess body fat on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
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              Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease

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