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      A pilot study on combining risperidone and pivotal response treatment on communication difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorder

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          The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of combined risperidone (RIS) and pivotal response treatment (PRT) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).


          In all, 34 children diagnosed with ASD (mean age of 12.36 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an RIS treatment group ( n=18) and an RIS plus PRT ( n=16). Communication skills were evaluated with the child communication checklist (CCC).


          Total score of the CCC was increased in both groups after three months compared with the score prior to treatment. The total score of the CCC was significantly higher in the combined treatment group than in the RIS group.


          Treatment with RIS combined with PRT may result in a better outcome in communication skill for children with autism than RIS training alone.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.

          Prevalence rates of autism-spectrum disorders are uncertain, and speculation that their incidence is increasing continues to cause concern. To estimate the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) in a geographically defined population of preschool children. Survey conducted July 1998 to June 1999 in Staffordshire, England. The area's 15 500 children aged 2.5 to 6.5 years were screened for developmental problems. Children with symptoms suggestive of a PDD were intensively assessed by a multidisciplinary team, which conducted standardized diagnostic interviews and administered psychometric tests. Prevalence estimates for subtypes of PDDs. A total of 97 children (79.4% male) were confirmed to have a PDD. The prevalence of PDDs was estimated to be 62.6 (95% confidence interval, 50.8-76.3) per 10 000 children. Prevalences were 16.8 per 10 000 for autistic disorder and 45.8 per 10 000 for other PDDs. The mean age at diagnosis was 41 months, and 81% were originally referred by health visitors (nurse specialists). Of the 97 children with a PDD, 25.8% had some degree of mental retardation and 9.3% had an associated medical condition. Our results suggest that rates of PDD are higher than previously reported. Methodological limitations in existing epidemiological investigations preclude interpretation of recent high rates as indicative of increased incidence of these disorders although this hypothesis requires further rigorous testing. Attention is nevertheless drawn to the important needs of a substantial minority of preschool children.
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            A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children.

            The purpose of this study was to attempt to improve verbal language acquisition for nonverbal autistic children by manipulating traditional teaching techniques so they incorporated parameters of natural language interactions and motivational techniques. Within a multiple baseline design, treatment was conducted in a baseline condition with trials presented serially in a traditional analogue clinical format where the therapist presented instructions, prompts, and reinforcers for correct responses. Then, these variables were manipulated in the natural language teaching condition such that stimulus items were functional and varied, natural reinforcers were employed, communicative attempts were also reinforced, and trials were conducted within a natural interchange. Treatment and generalization data demonstrated that manipulation of these variables resulted in broadly generalized treatment gains. Implications for language intervention are discussed.
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              Autism and pervasive developmental disorders


                Author and article information

                Advances in Autism
                Emerald Publishing Limited
                03 April 2018
                : 4
                : 2
                : 56-65
                Department of Speech Therapy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences , Hamadan, Iran
                Department of Clinical Psychology, Kharazmi University , Tehran, Iran
                Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran
                Department of Educational Psychology, Kharazmi University , Tehran, Iran
                Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University GC , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Mohammad Rezaei can be contacted at:
                608300 AIA-11-2017-0024.pdf AIA-11-2017-0024
                © Emerald Publishing Limited
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 10, Words: 4188
                research-article, Research paper
                cat-HSC, Health & social care
                cat-LID, Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata

                Health & Social care

                Interventions, Social communication disorder, Autism spectrum disorder


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