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      Frail Older Adults with Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Clinical Course and Prognosis


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          The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic threatening millions of people worldwide. This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes, and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2-positive, asymptomatic, frail older adults.


          A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 6 designated COVID-19 units, in skilled nursing homes. Subjects were severely frail older adults, positive for SARS-CoV-2, and asymptomatic at the time of their admission in these units. Residents' characteristics and symptoms were obtained via electronic medical records. The primary outcome was a composite of death or hospitalization by day 40. We looked at time to the primary outcome and used Cox regression for a multivariate analysis.


          During March–November 2020, 849 residents met inclusion criteria. Median age was 84 years. Most were completely dependent for basic activities of daily living and showed cognitive impairment. Six hundred forty-one (75.5%) residents were discharged after considered cured from COVID-19, 125 (14.7%) were hospitalized, and 82 (9.7%) died in the facilities. In survival analysis, 35% reached the primary outcome of death or hospitalization by day 40. Age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.4), male gender (HR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.1–1.88), and COPD (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.23–2.67) were significant risk factors.


          In this large cohort, we report care and prognosis of asymptomatic older adults with major functional or cognitive impairments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most presymptomatic patients do not develop severe infection, and age stays a predominant risk factor, even in the frailest older adults.

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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              A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation

              The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                31 January 2022
                31 January 2022
                : 1-9
                [1] aDepartment of Acute Geriatrics, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel
                [2] bSackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                [3] cResearch Authority, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel
                [4] dShmuel Harofeh Medical Center, Be'er Yaakov, Israel
                [5] eGeriatric Center Golden-Care, Ness Ziona, Israel
                [6] fDepartment of Geriatrics, Beit Rivka Geriatric Rehabilitation Center, Petah Tikva, Israel
                [7] gInternal Medicine Department E, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2022 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                : 18 August 2021
                : 8 December 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 36, Pages: 9
                Clinical Section: Research Article

                coronavirus disease,older adults,long-term care,frailty,vitamin d


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