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      Study on homophobic bullying in Portugal using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) Translated title: Estudio sobre Bullying Homofóbico en Portugal con recurso al Análisis de Correspondencias Múltiples (ACM)

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          Abstract

          Educational institutions, as well as political, social and scientific discourses, have contributed towards discrimination and violence against people with non-normative sexual orientations. Acts of violence among peers (bullying) motivated by homophobia occur on a frequent basis in school contexts. This study aims to identify the patterns in which homophobic bullying (victim identified) takes place in Portuguese schools using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. This study involved the application of a questionnaire to people of both sexes before obtaining a total of 171 participants reporting themselves as victims of homophobic bullying in schools. Following the identification of eight indicators and the selection of two dimensions, while also structuring the axes in accordance with the representation space, four patterns of homophobic bullying could be identified: masculine violence, feminine violence, violence with less perceived impact, and violence with greater perceived impact. These different patterns have allowed us to learn about the different ways in which peer violence takes place in schools and its possible effects. Among the main study conclusions, it is highlighted how male participants were victims of violence at an earlier age than female participant victims. Another key finding is the complete lack of cases in which the aggressors were only female. Finally, a common conclusion to all participants, encapsulates how none of the victims reported the violence to their families for fear of losing family support by revealing a non-heterosexual orientation.

          Translated abstract

          Las instituciones educativas, así como los discursos sociales, políticos y científicos, han contribuido a la discriminación y a la violencia contra las personas con orientaciones sexuales no normativas. Incluso en el contexto escolar suceden actos de violencia entre iguales (bullying) motivados por la homofobia. El estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los patrones en que ocurre el bullying homofóbico (identificado por las víctimas) en las escuelas portuguesas, recurriendo a un Análisis de Correspondencias Múltiples. Este estudio se basa en un cuestionario en línea realizado a personas de ambos sexos, hasta un total de 171 participantes que manifestaron haber sido víctimas de bullying homofóbico en las escuelas. Con la identificación de 8 indicadores y la selección de 2 dimensiones como ejes estructurales del espacio de las representaciones fue posible identificar 4 patrones del bullying homofóbico: la violencia en el masculino, la violencia en el femenino, la violencia con menor impacto percibido y la violencia con mayor impacto percibido. Estos patrones de diferentes características nos han permitido reconocer diferentes formas en que tiene lugar la violencia entre iguales en las escuelas y sus posibles efectos. Entre las principales conclusiones del estudio destaca el hecho de que los participantes de sexo masculino fueron víctimas de violencia en edades más tempranas, mientras que las participantes de sexo femenino fueron víctimas en edades más avanzadas. Otra conclusión principal devela que no existe ningún caso en el que los sujetos agresores fueran únicamente de sexo femenino. Una conclusión más, común a todos los patrones identificados, es que ninguna víctima contó la violencia sufrida a la familia, por temor a perder el apoyo familiar al revelar una orientación sexual no heterosexual.

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          Most cited references35

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          Bullying at School: Basic Facts and Effects of a School Based Intervention Program

          Dan Olweus (1994)
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            Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school.

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              Children's coping strategies: moderators of the effects of peer victimization?

              Coping strategies were examined as potential moderators of the effects of peer victimization on children's adjustment. Self-report data on victimization experiences, coping strategies, and loneliness were collected on ethnically diverse 9-10-year-old children (177 girls, 179 boys). Teacher ratings of children's anxious-depressed and social problems and peer nominations of social preference were also obtained. Findings revealed that strategies such as problem solving that were beneficial for nonvictimized children exacerbated difficulties for victimized children. The effects of specific forms of coping were dependent on gender: social support seeking buffered victimized girls from social problems but was associated with lower peer preference for victimized boys. Data also revealed the need to examine the effects of coping on multiple adjustment outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rlps
                Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología
                rev.latinoam.psicol.
                Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                0120-0534
                December 2016
                : 48
                : 3
                : 191-200
                Affiliations
                [02] Lisboa orgnameISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Portugal
                [01] Porto orgnameUniversity of Porto orgdiv1Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences Portugal
                Article
                S0120-05342016000300006
                10.1016/j.rlp.2016.04.001
                a2c44469-dc19-4fe6-a38a-d3b3189afffd

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 11 June 2013
                : 17 November 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 10
                Product

                SciELO Colombia


                Heterosexism,Bullying homofóbico,Escuelas portuguesas,Heterosexismo,Homophobic bullying,Portuguese schools

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