124
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Antigen receptor control of amino acid transport coordinates the metabolic re-programming that is essential for T cell differentiation

      research-article

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Summary

          T lymphocytes regulate nutrient uptake to meet the metabolic demands of immune activation. The present study shows that the intracellular supply of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) in T cells is regulated by pathogen and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). A single System L transporter, Slc7a5, mediated LNAA uptake in activated T cells. Slc7a5-null T cells could not metabolically reprogram in response to antigen and failed clonal expansion and effector differentiation. The metabolic catastrophe caused by Slc7a5 loss reflects the requirement for sustained uptake of the LNAA leucine for activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and for expression of c-myc. Pathogen control of System L transporters is thus a critical metabolic checkpoint for T cells.

          Related collections

          Most cited references26

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy.

          Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that activates mTOR. L-glutamine uptake is regulated by SLC1A5 and loss of SLC1A5 function inhibits cell growth and activates autophagy. The molecular basis for L-glutamine sensitivity is due to SLC7A5/SLC3A2, a bidirectional transporter that regulates the simultaneous efflux of L-glutamine out of cells and transport of L-leucine/EAA into cells. Certain tumor cell lines with high basal cellular levels of L-glutamine bypass the need for L-glutamine uptake and are primed for mTOR activation. Thus, L-glutamine flux regulates mTOR, translation and autophagy to coordinate cell growth and proliferation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Glutamine uptake and metabolism are coordinately regulated by ERK/MAPK during T lymphocyte activation.

            Activation of a naive T cell is a highly energetic event, which requires a substantial increase in nutrient metabolism. Upon stimulation, T cells increase in size, rapidly proliferate, and differentiate, all of which lead to a high demand for energetic and biosynthetic precursors. Although amino acids are the basic building blocks of protein biosynthesis and contribute to many other metabolic processes, the role of amino acid metabolism in T cell activation has not been well characterized. We have found that glutamine in particular is required for T cell function. Depletion of glutamine blocks proliferation and cytokine production, and this cannot be rescued by supplying biosynthetic precursors of glutamine. Correlating with the absolute requirement for glutamine, T cell activation induces a large increase in glutamine import, but not glutamate import, and this increase is CD28-dependent. Activation coordinately enhances expression of glutamine transporters and activities of enzymes required to allow the use of glutamine as a Krebs cycle substrate in T cells. The induction of glutamine uptake and metabolism requires ERK function, providing a link to TCR signaling. Together, these data indicate that regulation of glutamine use is an important component of T cell activation. Thus, a better understanding of glutamine sensing and use in T cells may reveal novel targets for immunomodulation.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              T cell receptor signaling controls Foxp3 expression via PI3K, Akt, and mTOR.

              Regulatory T (Treg) cells safeguard against autoimmunity and immune pathology. Because determinants of the Treg cell fate are not completely understood, we have delineated signaling events that control the de novo expression of Foxp3 in naive peripheral CD4 T cells and in thymocytes. We report that premature termination of TCR signaling and inibition of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p110alpha, p110delta, protein kinase B (Akt), or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) conferred Foxp3 expression and Treg-like gene expression profiles. Conversely, continued TCR signaling and constitutive PI3K/Akt/mTOR activity antagonised Foxp3 induction. At the chromatin level, di- and trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me2 and -3) near the Foxp3 transcription start site (TSS) and within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) preceded active Foxp3 expression and, like Foxp3 inducibility, was lost upon continued TCR stimulation. These data demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network regulates Foxp3 expression.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                100941354
                21750
                Nat Immunol
                Nat. Immunol.
                Nature immunology
                1529-2908
                1529-2916
                29 January 2013
                24 March 2013
                May 2013
                01 November 2013
                : 14
                : 5
                : 500-508
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, University of Dundee, U.K.
                [2 ]Program in Cellular Regulation and Metabolism, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, U.S.A.
                Article
                EMS51595
                10.1038/ni.2556
                3672957
                23525088
                a2c72fc7-0513-4249-8614-b07c086bd0bc

                Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data- mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: http://www.nature.com/authors/editorial_policies/license.html#terms

                History
                Categories
                Article

                Immunology
                Immunology

                Comments

                Comment on this article