Objective To investigate and compare the changes and associated factors of knowledge, attitude and practice of college students in Shanghai between the early 2020 and the end of 2021 stages of the COVID-19 epidemic and analyze the influencing factors, so as to provide reference for epidemic prevention and health education of college students.
Methods A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted among 913 college students in 12 colleges and universities in Shanghai in 2021 from November to December with a self-designed questionnaire by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, so as to investigate the changes of college students’ health literacy related to COVID-19 and the changes of knowledge, attitude and practice between the early 2020 and the end of 2021 stages of the COVID-19 epidemic.
Results In the early stage of the epidemic, the average score of understanding of epidemic prevention and control policies was (2.93±0.94), information judgment was (3.10±0.89), satisfaction degree was (4.11±1.09), cooperation degree was (4.31±0.96), communication intention was (3.91±1.15). By the end of 2021, the understanding of prevention and control policies was (2.95±0.98); Inlonnation judgment was (3.77±0.94), satisfaction degree was (4.22±1.10), cooperation degree was (4.36±0.99), communication intention was (3.97±1.20), there were significant changes at different stages ( P<0.01). The results of binary Logistic regression showed that majors of social sciences ( OR = 0.62), majors of natural sciences ( OR = 0.62), self-rated good health ( OR = 0.62) and self-rated relatively good health ( OR = 0.28) were negatively correlated with college students’ cognition and attitude changes to the COVID-19 epidemic ( P<0.05), while the choice of “relatively consistent” ( OR =3.31) in “change in health behavior according to reasonable health information” was positively correlated with knowledge and attitude changes ( P<0.05). Shanghai college students’ health literacy about epidemic prevention was generally high. 79.4% of them had a “relatively high” score (>80), and 82.6% of the students rated themselves “very well” and “relatively well” knew epidemic prevention.
Conclusion Relatively high level of health literacy on epidemic prevention is observed among college students in Shanghai. There had been significant changes in their knowledge, attitude, and practice of the epidemic since the early stage. It is necessary to carry out more accurate and effective health education and dissemination according to different characteristics, so as to build the prevention and control barrier of epidemic among college students.
【摘要】目的 了解上海市大学生在2020年初新冠肺炎疫情初期和2021年底常态化防控阶段对疫情防控的认知、态度、行为变化及其相关因素, 为做好大学生群体疫情防控和健康教育提供参考。 方法 采用回顾性横断面调査, 采用自编问卷, 在2021年11一12月面向上海市12所普通髙等本专科学校, 通过多阶段分层整群抽样方法对上海市913名大学生进行线下调査, 采用配对 t检验及多因素二分类Logistic回归分析进行研究。 结果 疫情发生初期大学生对于防控政策的了解度为 (2.93±0.94)分, 信息判断力为 (3.10±0.89)分, 对于疫情防控的满意度为 (4.11±1.09)分, 配合度为 (4.31±0.96)分, 传播意愿为 (3.91±1.15)分;至2021年底, 防控政策了解度为 (2.95±0.98)分, 信息判断力为 (3.77±0.94)分, 疫情防控满意度为 (4.22±1.10)分, 配合度为 (4.36±0.99)分, 传播意愿为 (3.97±1.20)分, 不同阶段大学生新冠肺炎疫情知信行变化差异均有统计学意义 ( P值均<0.01)。二分类Logistic回归结果显示, 学科门类为社科类 ( OR = 0.62)、理科类 ( OR = 0.62), 健康状况自评为较好 ( OR = 0.62)、一般 ( OR = 0.28)与大学生对新冠肺炎疫情的认知、态度改变均呈负相关 ( P值均<0.05), “根据合理的健康信息改变健康行为”中选择“比较符合” ( OR =3.31)与大学生对新冠疫情的认知、态度改变呈正相关 ( P<0.05)。上海大学生疫情防控相关健康素养普遍较髙, 测评“较髙” (新冠肺炎疫情相关健康素养得分>80)者占79.4%, 对新冠肺炎防护知识了解程度自评“非常了解”和“比较了解”的学生占82.6%。 结论 上海大学生群体从新冠肺炎疫情初期至常态化防控阶段对疫情防控的知信行改变较髙, 新冠肺炎防控相关健康素养普遍较髙;需针对不同特点开展更加精准有效的健康教育和传播, 筑牢大学生群体疫情防控屏障。