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      Potential of essential oils for poultry and pigs

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          Abstract

          The increasing pressure of abolishing and/or decreasing the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters for livestock calls for alternative solutions to sustain the efficiency of current livestock production. Among the alternatives, essential oils have a great potential and are generally considered natural, less toxic, and free from residues. Essential oils have been proven in numerous in vitro studies to exert antimicrobial effects on various pathogens. The current review touched on the basics of essential oils, and the in vivo effects of essential oils on growth, intestinal microflora, anti-oxidation, immune functionality, meat qualities as well as the possible modes of action in poultry and pigs, and the future research areas were proposed.

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          Most cited references 83

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          Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica.

          An improved method of sample preparation was used in a microplate assay to evaluate the bactericidal activity levels of 96 essential oils and 23 oil compounds against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica obtained from food and clinical sources. Bactericidal activity (BA50) was defined as the percentage of the sample in the assay mixture that resulted in a 50% decrease in CFU relative to a buffer control. Twenty-seven oils and 12 compounds were active against all four species of bacteria. The oils that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.009) were marigold, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.046 to 0.14) were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.092) were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli oils; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.045 to 0.14) were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils. The oil compounds that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034) were cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.28) were carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.019 to 0.43) were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde, carvone S, estragole, and salicylaldehyde; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.034 to 0.21) were thymol, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, terpineol, perillaldehyde, and estragole. The possible significance of these results with regard to food microbiology is discussed.
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            Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols

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              Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Anim Nutr
                Anim Nutr
                Animal Nutrition
                KeAi Publishing
                2405-6545
                2405-6383
                02 February 2018
                June 2018
                02 February 2018
                : 4
                : 2
                : 179-186
                Affiliations
                [a ]DSM (China) Animal Nutrition Research Center, Bazhou 065799, China
                [b ]DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Basel 4002, Switzerland
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. heng-xiao.zhai@ 123456dsm.com
                Article
                S2405-6545(17)30150-6
                10.1016/j.aninu.2018.01.005
                6103468
                a2dae239-29a1-4963-b9c6-1191d9cb4838
                © 2018 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                antibiotics, chickens, essential oils, pathogens, pigs

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