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      STRESS AND THE CITY: URBANIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE STRESS PHYSIOLOGY IN EUROPEAN BLACKBIRDS

      , ,
      Ecology
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Coping styles in animals: current status in behavior and stress-physiology.

          This paper summarizes the current views on coping styles as a useful concept in understanding individual adaptive capacity and vulnerability to stress-related disease. Studies in feral populations indicate the existence of a proactive and a reactive coping style. These coping styles seem to play a role in the population ecology of the species. Despite domestication, genetic selection and inbreeding, the same coping styles can, to some extent, also be observed in laboratory and farm animals. Coping styles are characterized by consistent behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics, some of which seem to be causally linked to each other. Evidence is accumulating that the two coping styles might explain a differential vulnerability to stress mediated disease due to the differential adaptive value of the two coping styles and the accompanying neuroendocrine differentiation.
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            How Do Glucocorticoids Influence Stress Responses? Integrating Permissive, Suppressive, Stimulatory, and Preparative Actions

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              Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research.

              Increasingly, levels of the 'stress hormones' cortisol and corticosterone are being used by ecologists as indicators of physiological stress in wild vertebrates. The amplitude of hormonal response is assumed to correlate with the overall health of an animal and, by extension, the health of the population. However, much of what is known about the physiology of stress has been elucidated by the biomedical research community. I summarize five physiological mechanisms that regulate hormone release during stress that should be useful to ecologists and conservationists. Incorporating these physiological mechanisms into the design and interpretation of ecological studies will make these increasingly popular studies of stress in ecological settings more rigorous.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecology
                Ecology
                Wiley-Blackwell
                0012-9658
                August 2006
                August 2006
                : 87
                : 8
                : 1945-1952
                Article
                10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[1945:SATCUA]2.0.CO;2
                a2ddc552-dc0a-4d5d-8a6a-1c409ec50531
                © 2006

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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