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      Study of the sustained speed of kill of the combination of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the combination of imidacloprid/permethrin against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick Translated title: Étude de la rémanence et de la rapidité d’action de deux combinaisons antiparasitaires externes, fipronil/amitraz/(S)-méthoprène et imidaclopride/perméthrine, sur Dermacentor reticulatus, la tique européenne du chien

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          The sustained speed of kill against Dermacentor reticulatus of two topical combinations, one containing fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the other, imidacloprid/permethrin, was evaluated in dogs. Two treated groups and one untreated control group of eight adult Beagle dogs each were randomly formed based on pre-infestation rates and bodyweight. Each treatment was administered topically once on Day 0, according to the recommended label dose and instructions for use. All dogs were infested with 50 adult unfed D. reticulatus starting on Day 1, then weekly, for a total of five weeks. While most studies determine tick efficacy at 48 hours (h), in this study, all remaining ticks were counted and categorized 24 h following each infestation. The numbers of ticks (living or dead) that remained attached on treated dogs were compared to those on the control animals. The percent reduction of attached ticks (disruption of attachment) at 24 h on dogs treated with fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene remained above 92% for four weeks. The reduction of attached ticks at 24 h on dogs treated with imidacloprid/permethrin did not reach 80% during the entire study. The number of ticks attached at 24 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the fipronil/ amitraz/(S)-methoprene group than in the imidacloprid/permethrin group in assessments on Days 2, 15, 22, 29 and 36. When assessing efficacy based upon live ticks on treated versus control dogs, fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene 24 h efficacy was above 95% for four weeks, decreasing to 77.8% at Day 36. The 24 h efficacy of imidacloprid/permethrin ranged from 56.2% to 86.7% through Day 29, never achieving 90% throughout the study. The 24-hour efficacy of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than imidacloprid/permethrin at all time points, including Day 36.

          Translated abstract

          La rémanence et la rapidité d’action de deux antiparasitaires externes destinés au chien, l’un contenant fipronil/amitraz/(S)-méthoprène et l’autre imidaclopride/perméthrine, ont été évaluées. Deux groupes traités et un groupe témoin de chacun huit chiens de race Beagle ont été constitués après une infestation préalable par des tiques. Chaque traitement topique en pipette est appliqué au jour 0, selon les recommandations et instructions d’utilisation des laboratoires fabriquant. Tous les chiens sont infectés par 50 D. reticulatus adultes au jour 1, puis chaque semaine pendant cinq semaines. Alors que la plupart des études regardent l’efficacité anti-tiques à 48 heures (h), dans cette étude, les tiques restant sur les chiens ont été comptées et classées selon leur état (fixées ou non fixées, vivantes ou mortes, gorgées ou non gorgées) après 24 h de contact. Le nombre de tiques (vivantes ou mortes) qui restaient attachées sur les chiens traités a été comparé avec celui dénombré sur les chiens témoins non traités. Le pourcentage de réduction d’attachement (ou de perturbation d’attachement) à 24 h chez les chiens traités par la combinaison fipronil/amitraz/(S)-méthoprène est resté supérieur à 92 % pendant quatre semaines. La réduction d’attachement des tiques à 24 h chez les chiens traités par l’association imidaclopride/perméthrine n’a pas dépassé 80 % durant cet essai. Le nombre de tiques fixées sur les chiens à 24 h était significativement plus faible (p < 0.05) dans le groupe traité fipronil/amitraz/(S)-méthoprène que dans le groupe imidaclopride/ perméthrine aux jours 2, 15, 22, 29 et 36. Si l’on étudie l’efficacité acaricide par comparaison au nombre de tiques vivantes sur les chiens témoins, cette efficacité à 24 h est restée supérieure à 95 % pendant quatre semaines, puis a diminué à 77,8 % au jour 36 dans le groupe fipronil/amitraz/(S)-méthoprène. L’efficacité acaricide à 24 h dans le groupe traité imidaclopride/perméthrine a été comprise entre 56,2 et 86,7 % jusqu’au jour 29, ne dépassant jamais 90 %. L’efficacité acaricide à 24 h du groupe traité par l’association fipronil/amitraz/(S)-méthoprène a été significativement plus forte que dans le groupe imidaclopride/perméthrine à tous les points de comptage, jusqu’au jour 36.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

          Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.
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            World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestation on dogs and cats.

            These guidelines are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities accruing from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist registration authorities involved in the approval and registration of new parasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.
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              Burden of Tick-borne Infections on American Companion Animals

              This review examines the biology of ticks and tick-borne infections in the United States. The most common tick-borne diseases in dogs and cats are discussed. We demonstrate that there is much interest in tick-borne infections at the level of the lay public (pet owners), describe trends in the distribution and prevalence of tick-borne infections in the United States, summarize some issues in understanding the degree of ill health due to tick-borne infections, and suggest some avenues for research that would clarify these issues.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                November 2011
                15 November 2011
                : 18
                : 4 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/04 )
                : 319-323
                [1 ] ClinVet, P.O. Box 11186, Universitas Bloemfontein 9321 Republic of South Africa
                [2 ] Merial S.A.S. 29, avenue Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                [3 ] Merial S.A.S., PIPA, CRSV 1, allée des Cyprès 01150 Saint-Vulbas France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Frédéric Beugnet. E-mail: frederic.beugnet@ 123456merial.com
                parasite2011184p319 10.1051/parasite/2011184319
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 12, Pages: 5
                Research Note


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