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      Ghrelin and Its Relation with N-Terminal Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Objectives: To investigate ghrelin levels in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and the association of ghrelin with N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO). Methods: Plasma ghrelin, N-BNP, ET-1 and NO were measured, and echocardiography was performed in 20 IPAH patients and in 20 control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index. Results: Plasma ghrelin and NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in IPAH patients compared with values in control subjects (p < 0.05). In IPAH patients, ghrelin levels correlated positively with N-BNP (r = 0.616, p = 0.004), NO (r = 0.464, p = 0.039), right ventricle diameter (RVD; r = 0.485, p = 0.030) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP; r = 0.591, p = 0.006). N-BNP levels correlated positively with RVD (r = 0.551, p = 0.012) and ET-1 (r = 0.451, p = 0.046). Conclusions: Plasma ghrelin levels were elevated in IPAH. Increased ghrelin levels correlated positively with N-BNP, PASP, RVD and NO, and N-BNP levels correlated positively with RVD and ET-1. Pulmonary vascular pathology is a complex imbalance of opposing forces. Ghrelin may not only provide a novel prognostic biomarker for IPAH but also be a potential new therapeutic strategy.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension.

          In 1998, during the Second World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) held in Evian, France, a clinical classification of PH was proposed. The aim of the Evian classification was to individualize different categories sharing similarities in pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and therapeutic options. The Evian classification is now well accepted and widely used in clinical practice, especially in specialized centers. In addition, this classification has been used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Agency for Drug Evaluation for the labeling of newly approved medications in PH. In 2003, during the Third World Symposium on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension held in Venice, Italy, it was decided to maintain the general architecture and philosophy of the Evian classification. However, some modifications have been proposed, mainly to abandon the term "primary pulmonary hypertension" and to replace it with "idiopathic pulmonary hypertension"; to reclassify pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis; to update risk factors and associated conditions for pulmonary arterial hypertension and to propose guidelines in order to improve the classification of congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2013
                April 2013
                06 April 2013
                : 124
                : 4
                : 241-245
                Affiliations
                aCenter for Pulmonary Vascular Diseases, bCore Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                *Zhihong Liu, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167 North Lishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100037 (People's Republic of China), E-Mail redhandsome@126.com
                Article
                348368 Cardiology 2013;124:241-245
                10.1159/000348368
                23571554
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Research

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