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      The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Levels of Waterborne Cadmium on Reproductive Capacity and Behaviour in Fathead Minnows

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          Most cited references 44

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis.

          For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            The effects of environmental pollutants on complex fish behaviour: integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity

            Environmental pollutants such as metals, pesticides, and other organics pose serious risks to many aquatic organisms. Accordingly, a great deal of previous research has characterized physiological mechanisms of toxicity in animals exposed to contaminants. In contrast, effects of contaminants on fish behaviour are less frequently studied. Because behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes, behavioural indicators of toxicity appear ideal for assessing the effects of aquatic pollutants on fish populations. Here we consider the many toxicants that disrupt complex fish behaviours, such as predator avoidance, reproductive, and social behaviours. Toxicant exposure often completely eliminates the performance of behaviours that are essential to fitness and survival in natural ecosystems, frequently after exposures of lesser magnitude than those causing significant mortality. Unfortunately, the behavioural toxicity of many xenobiotics is still unknown, warranting their future study. Physiological effects of toxicants in the literature include disruption of sensory, hormonal, neurological, and metabolic systems, which are likely to have profound implications for many fish behaviours. However, little toxicological research has sought to integrate the behavioural effects of toxicants with physiological processes. Those studies that take this multidisciplinary approach add important insight into possible mechanisms of behavioural alteration. The most commonly observed links with behavioural disruption include cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, altered brain neurotransmitter levels, sensory deprivation, and impaired gonadal or thyroid hormone levels. Even less frequently studied are the implications of interrelated changes in behaviour and physiology caused by aquatic pollutants for fish populations. We conclude that future integrative, multidisciplinary research is clearly needed to increase the significance and usefulness of behavioural indicators for aquatic toxicology, and aim to highlight specific areas for consideration. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.
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              The effects of heavy metals on embryonic development of fish (a review).

              Early developmental stages of fish are particularly sensitive to water pollution. Heavy metals may affect various developmental processes during the embryonic period, which results in a reduction of offspring quantity and quality. Waterborne metals may accumulate in the gonads of spawners and adversely affect gamete production and viability, or exert direct toxic influence upon developing embryos. The egg shell does not fully protect the embryo against metal penetration, particularly during the swelling phase; thus, metals may accumulate in the egg. The results depend on metal concentration and range from developmental disturbances to death of the embryo. Metals disturb various processes of fish embryonic development and affect the development rate. Early stages just after fertilization are particularly sensitive to metal intoxication, when most disturbances and the highest embryonic mortality occur. Waterborne metals also promote developmental anomalies during organogenesis, including body malformations. Heavy metals often induce a delay in the hatching process, premature hatching, deformations and death of newly hatched larvae. All these disturbances result in reduced numbers and poor quality of the larvae, which show small body size, high frequency of malformations and reduced viability.

                Author and article information

                Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
                Arch Environ Contam Toxicol
                Springer Nature
                August 2014
                March 2014
                : 67
                : 2
                : 181-191
                © 2014


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