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      Prevention of Hemodialysis Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Using an Antimicrobial Lock

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          Among currently available vascular access options for hemodialysis, central venous catheters show the poorest reliability, with frequent complications of thrombosis and stenosis impairing patency. The most serious problem, however, is catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBI), which is typically a cause for removal of the catheter and protracted systemic antibiotic therapy. In our experience, a totally implanted device (Dialock<sup>®</sup>, Biolink Corp.) seems to confer a better global protection against catheter-related infections than standard tunneled catheters, accounting for 0.97 vs. 4.75 infection episodes/1,000 catheter-days, respectively (p < 0.001). Bloodstream infection rates, however, are not statistically different in the two groups (0.85 vs. 0.81 per 1,000 catheter-days; p = n.s.), indicating that the improvement is mainly related to local cutaneous infections. On the other hand, in the Sodemann experience, a new taurolidine-based lock solution (Neutrolin<sup>®</sup>, Biolink Corp.) greatly reduced CRBI rates with both subcutaneous ports and tunneled catheters to 0.29 and 0.20 episodes/1,000 catheter-days, respectively. These promising results await further confirmation from ongoing clinical trials.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Bacterial Biofilms: A Common Cause of Persistent Infections

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            Filling hemodialysis catheters in the interdialytic period: heparin versus citrate versus polygeline: a prospective randomized study.

            Heparin and saline are commonly used to fill hemodialysis central venous catheters to prevent their thrombosis during the interdialytic period. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate whether replacing heparin with citrate or polygeline could ensure satisfactory catheter function without exposing patients to the risk of systemic heparinization. Thirty end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with subclavian or jugular single lumen catheters as temporary vascular access for hemodialysis were enrolled. After the insertion of the catheters, the patients were randomly assigned to one of the following three filling groups: Group A, heparin; Group B, citrate; Group C, polygeline. Before each dialysis, the filling solution was aspirated and clot volume, if present, was measured. The catheter usage time and the clot volume were 23 +/- 24 days and 0.052 +/- 0.035 ml in Group A, 51 +/- 36 days and 0.059 +/- 0.032 ml in Group B, and 32 +/- 10 days and 0.056 +/- 0.038 ml in Group C, respectively. Our results indicate that citrate or polygeline can replace heparin effectively as a filling solution for single lumen temporary hemodialysis catheters.
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              Activities of taurolidine in vitro and in experimental enterococcal endocarditis.

              In vitro, the antimicrobial agent taurolidine inhibited virtually all of the bacteria tested, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, oxacillin-resistant staphylococci, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, at concentrations between 250 and 2,000 microg/ml. Taurolidine was not effective in experimental endocarditis. While it appears unlikely that this antimicrobial would be useful for systemic therapy, its bactericidal activity and the resistance rates found (<10(-9)) are favorable indicators for its possible development for topical use.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                17 January 2002
                : 20
                : 1
                : 87-92
                Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Giovanni Bosco Hospital, Turin, Italy
                46990 Blood Purif 2002;20:87–92
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 7, References: 15, Pages: 6
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