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      Pro-resolving lipid mediators are leads for resolution physiology

      Nature

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bring about the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families, collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Synthetic versions of these mediators have potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, the mediators evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms, and enhance microbial clearance. Although they have been identified in inflammation resolution, specialized pro-resolving mediators are conserved structures that also function in host defence, pain, organ protection and tissue remodelling. This Review covers the mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions.

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          Most cited references 118

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          Macrophage plasticity and interaction with lymphocyte subsets: cancer as a paradigm.

          Plasticity is a hallmark of cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. In response to innate recognition or signals from lymphocyte subsets, mononuclear phagocytes undergo adaptive responses. Shaping of monocyte-macrophage function is an essential component of resistance to pathogens, tissue damage and repair. The orchestration of myelomonocytic cell function is a key element that links inflammation and cancer and provides a paradigm for macrophage plasticity and function. A better understanding of the molecular basis of myelomonocytic cell plasticity will open new vistas in immunopathology and therapeutic intervention.
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            Resolution of inflammation: the beginning programs the end.

            Acute inflammation normally resolves by mechanisms that have remained somewhat elusive. Emerging evidence now suggests that an active, coordinated program of resolution initiates in the first few hours after an inflammatory response begins. After entering tissues, granulocytes promote the switch of arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins and leukotrienes to lipoxins, which initiate the termination sequence. Neutrophil recruitment thus ceases and programmed death by apoptosis is engaged. These events coincide with the biosynthesis, from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, of resolvins and protectins, which critically shorten the period of neutrophil infiltration by initiating apoptosis. Consequently, apoptotic neutrophils undergo phagocytosis by macrophages, leading to neutrophil clearance and release of anti-inflammatory and reparative cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta1. The anti-inflammatory program ends with the departure of macrophages through the lymphatics. Understanding these and further details of the mechanism required for inflammation resolution may underpin the development of drugs that can resolve inflammatory processes in directed and controlled ways.
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              Treating inflammation by blocking interleukin-1 in a broad spectrum of diseases.

              Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a highly active pro-inflammatory cytokine that lowers pain thresholds and damages tissues. Monotherapy blocking IL-1 activity in autoinflammatory syndromes results in a rapid and sustained reduction in disease severity, including reversal of inflammation-mediated loss of sight, hearing and organ function. This approach can therefore be effective in treating common conditions such as post-infarction heart failure, and trials targeting a broad spectrum of new indications are underway. So far, three IL-1-targeted agents have been approved: the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, the soluble decoy receptor rilonacept and the neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-1β antibody canakinumab. In addition, a monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-1 receptor and a neutralizing anti-IL-1α antibody are in clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                June 2014
                June 4 2014
                June 2014
                : 510
                : 7503
                : 92-101
                Article
                10.1038/nature13479
                4263681
                24899309
                © 2014

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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