In mammalian neurons, the generation and propagation of the action potential result from the presence of dense clusters of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at the axonal initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. In these two structures, the assembly of specific supra-molecular complexes composed of numerous partners, such as cytoskeletal scaffold proteins and signaling proteins ensures the high concentration of Nav channels. Understanding how neurons regulate the expression and discrete localization of Nav channels is critical to understanding the diversity of normal neuronal function as well as neuronal dysfunction caused by defects in these processes. Here, we review the mechanisms establishing the clustering of Nav channels at the AIS and in the node and discuss how the alterations of Nav channel clustering can lead to certain pathophysiologies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.