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      The Effects of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor (ETI) on Blood Glucose in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting from defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which in turn results in a multi-systemic disorder. There are numerous known CF alleles associated with different mutations of the CFTR gene, with the most common CF allele being a three-base-pair deletion known as ΔF508. One common manifestation of CF is glycemic dysregulation associated with decreased insulin secretion, often progressing into a distinct form of diabetes known as cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In the past decade, a class of drugs known as CFTR modulators has entered clinical practice. These drugs interact with the CFTR protein to restore its function, with different modulators (or combinations of modulators) suitable for patients with different CFTR mutations. Previous research has established that the modulator ivacaftor is effective in decreasing blood glucose and sometimes resolving CFRD in patients with certain CFTR mutations (class III mutations). However, early modulator therapies for individuals with the common ΔF508 mutation (e.g., a combination of the modulators lumacaftor and ivacaftor) have largely proven ineffective in improving glucose regulation. More recently, a combination therapy of three modulators, namely elexacaftor, tezacaftor, and ivacaftor (ETI), has entered clinical practice for patients with the ΔF508 mutation. However, it is not clear whether this therapy is effective in treating dysglycemia.

          We searched for studies of any design that examined the effects of ETI on measures of blood glucose. All available studies were observational studies comparing patients before and after initiating ETI therapy. Measures of daily-life blood glucose (those obtained with continuous glucose monitoring systems or by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)) and post-prandial glucose spikes from oral glucose tolerance tests showed significant improvements in at least some studies. The majority of studies showed significant improvements from pre- to post-ETI in one or more blood glucose measures. While the interpretation of this evidence is complicated by the lack of randomized controlled trials, it appears that ETI therapy is associated with improved glucose regulation for at least some patients with the ΔF508 mutation.

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          Cystic fibrosis: a worldwide analysis of CFTR mutations--correlation with incidence data and application to screening.

          Although there have been numerous reports from around the world of mutations in the gene of chromosome 7 known as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), little attention has been given to integrating these mutant alleles into a global understanding of the population molecular genetics associated with cystic fibrosis (CF). We determined the distribution of CFTR mutations in as many regions throughout the world as possible in an effort designed to: 1) increase our understanding of ancestry-genotype relationships, 2) compare mutational arrays with disease incidence, and 3) gain insight for decisions regarding screening program enhancement through CFTR multi-mutational analyses. Information on all mutations that have been published since the identification and cloning of the CFTR gene's most common allele, DeltaF508 (or F508del), was reviewed and integrated into a centralized database. The data were then sorted and regional CFTR arrays were determined using mutations that appeared in a given region with a frequency of 0.5% or greater. Final analyses were based on 72,431 CF chromosomes, using data compiled from over 100 original papers, and over 80 regions from around the world, including all nations where CF has been studied using analytical molecular genetics. Initial results confirmed wide mutational heterogeneity throughout the world; however, characterization of the most common mutations across most populations was possible. We also examined CF incidence, DeltaF508 frequency, and regional mutational heterogeneity in a subset of populations. Data for these analyses were filtered for reliability and methodological strength before being incorporated into the final analysis. Statistical assessment of these variables revealed that there is a significant positive correlation between DeltaF508 frequency and the CF incidence levels of regional populations. Regional analyses were also performed to search for trends in the distribution of CFTR mutations across migrant and related populations; this led to clarification of ancestry-genotype patterns that can be used to design CFTR multi-mutation panels for CF screening programs. From comprehensive assessment of these data, we offer recommendations that multiple CFTR alleles should eventually be included to increase the sensitivity of newborn screening programs employing two-tier testing with trypsinogen and DNA analysis. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            CFTR Modulators: Shedding Light on Precision Medicine for Cystic Fibrosis

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              Update on cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

              Diabetes mellitus has emerged as a common comorbidity in cystic fibrosis and is considered a clinical entity (cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, CFRD) distinct from that of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The relevance of this diagnosis extends not only from its imposition of additional medical burden but its association with worse health outcomes in individuals with CF. This paper will review the 2010 U.S. and other international guidelines for screening and treating CFRD. It will highlight newer data regarding early glucose and insulin secretion defects, mechanisms linking CFRD to worse outcomes, and recent advances in T2DM that may provide insights for CFRD; insulin secretion will be reviewed as background for these recent developments. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                11 July 2023
                July 2023
                : 15
                : 7
                : e41697
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Biology, Southwestern University, Georgetown, TX, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.41697
                10413995
                a3155054-13ef-4114-b978-0503203e04bf
                Copyright © 2023, Salazar-Barragan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 9 July 2023
                Categories
                Endocrinology/Diabetes/Metabolism
                Genetics

                continuous glucose monitoring (cgm),glycated hemoglobin (hba1c),ogtt,blood glucose control,cystic fibrosis (cf),cystic fibrosis triple therapy,cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator,cystic fibrosis related diabetes

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