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      Effects of Mycophenolate Mofetil and Lisinopril on Collagen Deposition in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Rats


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          Background/Aims: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats has been used as a model of renal interstitial fibrosis, in which therapeutic trials can be of important clinical relevance. In this study, we investigated the effects of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril (L), and the combination of both drugs, given daily for 14 days to UUO rats, on the renal fibrogenic process triggered by UUO. Methods: Rats underwent surgical UUO, followed by treatment with daily doses of either MMF, lisinopril, or both, and were then sacrificed after 14 days. Kidney fragments were fixed for histopathological examination (hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff reactive) and immunohistochemistry for myofibroblasts (α-smooth muscle actin; α-SMA) and macrophages (ED-1). Histomorphometrical analysis of collagen was performed with Sirius red staining, and collagen content was assessed by the amount of hydroxyproline. Cortex and medulla were analyzed separately. Results: MMF, lisinopril and MMF+L reduced the density of α-SMA- and ED-1-positive cells (p < 0.05), interstitial volume (p < 0.05) and decreased Sirius-red-stained areas by 54.6, 35.6 and 58.0%, and hydroxyproline content by 60.1, 49.7 and 62.7%, respectively. No differences were observed among treated groups. Conclusion: MMF and the ACE inhibitor lisinopril attenuated the progression of the fibrogenic process of UUO in an equivalent manner. The combination of both drugs did not add any further improvement in the collagen content.

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          Angiotensin II receptor antagonist ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by unilateral ureteral obstruction.

          Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) results in tubulointerstitial fibrosis of the obstructed kidney (OBK). In this study we report that a specific angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonists, SC-51316, ameliorates the expansion of the renal cortical interstitium in the OBK of the rat at five days of UUO. This is similar to the effect of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril. SC-51316 (20 mg/liter in the drinking water) or enalapril (200 mg/liter in the drinking water) was administered beginning 24 hours before UUO and continued through five days after UUO. The relative volume of the tubulointerstitium (Vv) was measured by a point-counting method, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration, alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and collagen type IV (collagen IV) protein deposition were examined histologically using specific antibodies. We also examined the mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and collagen IV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In untreated rats with UUO, Vv was remarkably expanded; collagen IV and alpha SMA protein deposition in the interstitium and PCNA labeling of nuclei were increased. These changes were significantly ameliorated by administration of an ACE inhibitor or an Ang II receptor antagonist. A monocyte/macrophage infiltration was evident in the OBK of untreated or Ang II receptor antagonist treated rats but was greatly reduced in the OBK of rats given enalapril. Increased expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA and collagen IV mRNA was blunted (40 to 75%) by the administration of Ang II receptor antagonist or enalapril. The Ang II receptor antagonist or the ACE inhibitor did not affect the contralateral kidney of rats with UUO or the control kidney of normal rats. This study indicates that the renin-angiotensin system has a major role in the pathogenesis of the tubulointerstitial fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy. The tubulointerstitial fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy is most likely mediated by an increased level of Ang II in renal tissue.
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            Mycophenolate mofetil reduces myofibroblast infiltration and collagen III deposition in rat remnant kidney.

            Myofibroblasts have been shown to play a pivotal role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components in several animal models of renal fibrosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) reduces interstitial myofibroblast infiltration and collagen III deposition in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Forty-five Wistar rats underwent 5/6 renal ablation and received by daily oral gavage either vehicle (N = 20) or MMF (N = 25) during the 60 days following surgery. Groups of five treated and five untreated rats were killed at two, four, and eight weeks after subtotal nephrectomy. Four untreated and three treated rats were killed at week 12, one month after treatment withdrawal. At the time of sacrifice, proteinuria, plasma, and urine creatinine were determined. Immunohistochemistry was performed on renal tissue for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), a cytoskeletal marker of myofibroblasts, for type III collagen, and for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Moreover, in order to study the in vitro effects of MMF on fibroblast proliferation, rat fibroblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of mycophenolic acid (MPA). At all periods studied, MMF treatment improved renal functional parameters and progressively decreased remnant kidney hypertrophy and glomerular volume increment. Proliferating cells in renal tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli, as well as interstitial myofibroblast infiltration and interstitial type III collagen deposition, were also significantly reduced by MMF treatment. In addition, MPA exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on in vitro proliferation of rat fibroblasts. Reduction of interstitial myofibroblast infiltration may be an important event by which MMF significantly prevents renal injury following subtotal renal ablation. Thus, our results suggest that MMF could be useful to limit the progression of chronic renal disease toward end-stage renal failure.
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              Mycophenolate mofetil prevents the progressive renal failure induced by 5/6 renal ablation in rats.

              Extensive renal ablation is associated with progressive sclerosis of the remnant kidney. Because lymphocytes and monocytes accumulate in the remnant kidney, it is likely that they play a role in the renal scarring. Therefore, we treated rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug that has an antiproliferative effect and that suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules. Sprague-Dawley rats with 5/6Nx received MMF (30 mg. kg-1. day-1 by daily gastric gavage, N = 15) or vehicle (N = 16). Ten additional rats were sham operated. All rats were fed a 30% protein diet. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urinary protein excretion were determined weekly. Lipid peroxidation, as a measure of oxidative stress observed by urinary malondialdehyde determinations, was performed every two weeks. Histologic studies were done in the remnant kidney four weeks (9 rats from the vehicle-treated group, 7 rats from the MMF group, and 5 sham-operated rats) and eight weeks after surgery (the remaining rats). Glomerular volume, sclerosis in glomeruli (segmental and global) and interstitium (semiquantitative scale), infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages (CD43- and ED1-positive cells), and expression of adhesion molecules (CD54, CD18, and CD11b) were analyzed. MMF treatment prevented the progressive increment in serum creatinine and the proteinuria observed in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats during the eight weeks of observation (P < 0.01). Weight gain was comparable in the MMF-treated and sham-operated rats, whereas weight gain was decreased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Excretion of malondialdehyde increased after surgery but returned sooner to control levels in the MMF-treated rats. Increments in glomerular size and mean arterial blood pressure induced by renal ablation were not modified by MMF treatment. Eight weeks after surgery, segmental sclerosis was present in 48.4 +/- 8.35% (+/- sd) glomeruli in the vehicle-treated group versus 25 +/- 10.5% in the MMF-treated group (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was reduced significantly with MMF treatment (P < 0.001). Infiltration with CD43- and ED1-positive cells in glomeruli and interstitium was two to five times lower in MMF-treated rats (P < 0.01). Expression of adhesion molecules CD18 and CD11b was similarly reduced. MMF ameliorates the progressive renal damage in the remnant kidney after 5/6Nx. This effect is associated with a reduction in the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas glomerular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension are unchanged.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2004
                01 December 2004
                : 24
                : 5
                : 527-536
                aServiço de Nefrologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, bDepartamento de Anatomia e Histologia, cLaboratório de Tecido Conjuntivo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                81706 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:527–536
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 11 May 2004
                : 09 September 2004
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 29, Pages: 10
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81706
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/81706
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Macrophages,Fibrosis,Collagen,Ureteral obstruction,Myofibroblast,Hydronephrosis


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